Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in preschoolers
Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
(Impact Factor: 6.46).
12/2011; 53(6):695-705. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02514.x
Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published.
All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of Trondheim, Norway, who attended the regular community health check-up for 4-year-olds (97.2% of eligible children) whose parents consented to take part in the study (N = 2,475, 82.0%) were screened for behavioral and emotional problems with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). A screen-stratified subsample of 1,250 children took part in a furthermore comprehensive study including a structured diagnostic interview (the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment, PAPA), which 995 parents (79.6%) completed.
The estimated population rate for any psychiatric disorder (excluding encopresis - 6.4%) was 7.1%. The most common disorders were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (1.9%), oppositional defiant disorder (1.8%), conduct disorder (0.7%), anxiety disorders (1.5%), and depressive disorders (2.0%). Comorbidity among disorders was common. More emotional and behavioral disorders were seen in children whose parents did not live together and in those of low socioeconomic status. Boys more often had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorders than girls.
The prevalence of disorders among preschoolers was lower than in previous studies from the USA. Comorbidity was frequent and there was a male preponderance in ADHD and depression at this early age. These results underscore the fact that the most common disorders of childhood can already be diagnosed in preschoolers. However, rates of disorder in Norway may be lower than in the USA.
Figures in this publication
Available from: Frode Stenseng
- "The first wave of the Trondheim Early Secure Study (TESS) was conducted in 2007 and 2008 (T1) and included participants from two birth cohorts of children (born 2003 or 2004) and their parents living in the city of Trondheim, Norway. More details about the procedure, recruitment, and sample are presented elsewhere (Wichstrom et al., 2012). Of the 1,250 Norwegian speaking children drawn to participate, we tested 995 at the time of study enrolment (mean age: 4.55, 50.6 % boys,). "
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ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predicts poor peer relations. What remains unclear is whether poor peer relations affect ADHD symptomology. Hence, reciprocal effects of peer rejection and ADHD symptoms were examined in a community sample of 962 Norwegian children at ages 4, 6, and 8. Results showed that ADHD symptoms at age 4 predicted more peer rejection at age 6, and that peer rejection at age 4 predicted more symptoms at age 6. However, when conducting analyses on ADHD subtypes, Hyperactivity-Impulsivity and Inattentiveness symptoms were adversely affected by peer rejection at ages 6 and 8, whereas peer rejection was unaffected by such symptoms, indicating that the effect of peer rejection on ADHD symptoms was most robust. Mediational relationships were also identified.
- "While anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders of early childhood, with prevalence rates ranging from 1% (Keenan et al., 1997) up to 19% (Franz et al., 2013), the rate of depressive disorders is estimated consistently across studies as below 2% (Lavigne et al., 2009; Wichstrøm et al., 2012). Recent studies suggested that anxiety and depression in children and adolescents often co-occur concurrently (Wichstrøm et al., 2012) as well as sequentially (Bufferd et al., 2012), with higher levels of psychosocial impairment for comorbid anxiety and depression compared to either condition alone (Franco et al., 2007; Von Klitzing et al., 2014). "
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ABSTRACT: FKBP5 is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of stress-related disorders. Studies have shown that FKBP5 genotypes moderate the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in traumatized adults. We aimed to replicate this finding in a sample of preschool children. Parents of preschoolers (N = 186) were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) to evaluate the presence of anxiety and depressive disorders and to quantify the child's exposure to adverse events. All FKBP5 polymorphisms showed significant interactions with mild to moderate life events, but not with severe life events, in predicting the risk of anxiety and/or depressive disorders (p = 0.003-0.019). Children who experienced a high number of mild to moderate life events had a higher risk of developing an anxiety and/or depressive disorder if they were carriers of the minor allele compared to major allele homozygotes. Results indicate that genetic variation in FKBP5 influences the risk of anxiety and/or depressive disorders in preschool age by altering the sensitivity to the deleterious effects of mild to moderate adverse events. In case of severe life events, the FKBP5 genotype does not seem to play a role, suggesting that severe life events might influence directly the risk of anxiety and/or depressive disorders independent of an FKBP5 genotype-dependent vulnerability.
Available from: Beate Hygen
- "Two birth cohorts of children (born in 2003 or 2004) and their parents living in the city of Trondheim, Norway were invited to participate in the Trondheim Early Secure Study. Details of the procedure and recruitment have been presented elsewhere (Wichstrøm et al., 2012); only a brief outline is provided here. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) 4 –16 version (Goodman, 1997), together with an invitation letter, was mailed to the parents (N ϭ 3,456). "
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ABSTRACT: Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in aggression. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met (COMT), a common, functional polymorphism, has been implicated in aggression and aggression traits, as have childhood experiences of adversity. It is unknown whether these effects are additive or interactional and, in the case of interaction, whether they conform to a diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility model. We examined Gene × Environment interactions between COMT and serious life events on measures of childhood aggression and contrasted these 2 models. The sample was composed of community children (N = 704); 355 were boys, and the mean age was 54.8 months (SD = 3.0). The children were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and assessed for serious life events and by teacher-rated aggression. Regression analysis showed no main effects of COMT and serious life events on aggression. However, a significant interactive effect of childhood serious life events and COMT genotype was observed: Children who had faced many serious life events and were Val homozygotes exhibited more aggression (p = .02) than did their Met-carrying counterparts. Notably, in the absence of serious life events, Val homozygotes displayed significantly lower aggression scores than did Met carriers (p = .03). When tested, this constellation of findings conformed to the differential susceptibility hypothesis: In this case, Val homozygotes are more malleable to the effect of serious life events on aggression and not simply more vulnerable to the negative effect of having experienced many serious life events. (PsycINFO Database Record
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