Radiation Therapy With Full-Dose Gemcitabine and Oxaliplatin for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer
We completed a Phase I trial of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin with concurrent radiotherapy in patients with previously untreated pancreatic cancer. The results of a subset of patients with unresectable disease who went on to receive planned additional therapy are reported here.
All patients received two 28-day cycles of gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) on Days 1, 8, and 15) and oxaliplatin (40-85 mg/m(2) on Days 1 and 15, per a dose-escalation schema). Radiation therapy was delivered concurrently with Cycle 1 (27 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). At 9 weeks, patients were reassessed for resectability. Those deemed to have unresectable disease were offered a second round of treatment consisting of 2 cycles of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin and 27 Gy of radiation therapy (total, 54 Gy). Radiation was delivered to the gross tumor volume plus 1 cm by use of a three-dimensional conformal technique. We used the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events to assess acute toxicity. Late toxicity was scored per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Computed tomography scans were reviewed to determine pattern of failure, local response, and disease progression. Kaplan-Meier methodology and Cox regression models were used to evaluate survival and freedom from failure.
Thirty-two patients from the Phase I dose-escalation study had unresectable disease, three of whom had low-volume metastatic disease. Of this group, 16 patients went on to receive additional therapy to complete a total of 4 cycles of chemotherapy and 54 Gy of concurrent radiation. For this subset, 38% had at least a partial tumor response at a median of 3.2 months. Median survival was 11.8 months (range, 4.4-26.3 months). The 1-year freedom from local progression rate was 93.8% (95% confidence interval, 63.2-99.1).
Radiation therapy to 54 Gy with concurrent full-dose gemcitabine and oxaliplatin is well tolerated and results in favorable rates of local tumor response and 1-year freedom from local progression.
Available from: Fardokht A Abulwerdi
- "In order to further improve therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer we have previously investigated a number of strategies which build upon standard gemcitabine-based chemoradiation therapy. Incorporation of additional chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin and oxaliplatin, with gemcitabine-radiation does not appear to improve survival but does increase toxicity  . Thus, targeted therapies which are generally less toxic than standard chemotherapy have been combined with gemcitabine-radiation. "
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ABSTRACT: In order to identify targets whose inhibition may enhance the efficacy of chemoradiation in pancreatic cancer, we previously conducted an RNAi library screen of 8,800 genes. We identified Mcl-1 (myeloid cell leukemia-1), an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, as a target for sensitizing pancreatic cancer cells to chemoradiation. In the present study we investigated Mcl-1 inhibition by either genetic or pharmacological approaches as a radiosensitizing strategy in pancreatic cancer cells. Mcl-1 depletion by siRNA produced significant radiosensitization in BxPC-3 and Panc-1 cells in association with Caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage, but only minimal radiosensitization in MiaPaCa-2 cells. We next tested the ability of the recently identified, selective, small molecule inhibitor of Mcl-1, UMI77, to radiosensitize in pancreatic cancer cells. UMI77 caused dissociation of Mcl-1 from the pro-apoptotic protein Bak and produced significant radiosensitization in BxPC-3 and Panc-1 cells, but minimal radiosensitization in MiaPaCa-2 cells. Radiosensitization by UMI77 was associated with Caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Importantly, UMI77 did not radiosensitize normal small intestinal cells. In contrast, ABT-737, an established inhibitor of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w, failed to radiosensitize pancreatic cancer cells suggesting the unique importance of Mcl-1 relative to other Bcl-2 family members to radiation survival in pancreatic cancer cells. Taken together, these results validate Mcl-1 as a target for radiosensitization of pancreatic cancer cells and demonstrate the ability of small molecules which bind the canonical BH3 groove of Mcl-1, causing displacement of Mcl-1 from Bak, to selectively radiosensitize pancreatic cancer cells.
Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Available from: apocpcontrol.org
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ABSTRACT: To explore improved treatment by retrospectively comparing survival time of gemcitabine-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (GemRT) versus chemotherapy (Gem) alone in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC).
From January 2005 to June 2010, 56 patients with LAPC from Subei People's Hospital were treated either with Gem (n=21) or GemRT (n=35). Gem consisted of 4-6 cycles gemcitabine alone (1000 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8, 15, 28-day a cycle). GemRT consisted of 50.4Gy/28F radiotherapy with concurrent 2 cycles of gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2 on days of radiation 1, 8, 15, 21-day a cycle). Radiation was delivered to the gross tumor volume plus 1-1.5 cm by use of a three-dimensional conformal technique. The follow-up time was calculated from the time of diagnosis to the date of death or last contact. Kaplan-Meier methodology wes used to evaluate survival.
Patient characteristics were not significantly different between treatment groups. The disease control rate and the objective response rate of GemRT versus Gem was 97.1% vs 71.4%, 74.3% vs 38.1%. The overall survival (OS) was significantly better for GemRT compared to Gem (median 13 months versus 8 months; 51.4% versus 14.3% at 1 year, respectively).
Radiation therapy at 50.4Gy with 2 concurrent cycles of gemcitabine results in favorable rates of OS. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy should be the first choice for patients with LAPC.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma often present with distant metastatic disease. We aimed to assess whether improvements in survival of clinical trials translated to a population-based level.
The US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry was queried. Adult patients with distant metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas were included from 1988 to 2008. Overall survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves as well as multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models.
In total, 32,452 patients were included. Mean age was 67.6 (SD: 11.7) years, and 15,341 (47.3%) were female. Median overall survival was 3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3-3 months), which increased from 2 (CI, 2-2) months in 1988 to 3 (CI, 3-4) months in 2008. After adjustment for multiple covariates, the hazard ratio (HR) decreased by 0.977 per year (CI, 0.975-0.980). In multivariable-adjusted survival analyses, tumor location in the pancreatic body/tail (HR, 1.10), male sex (HR, 1.09), increasing age (HR, 1.016), African American ethnicity (HR, 1.16), nonmarried civil status (HR, 1.18), and absence of radiotherapy (HR, 1.41) were associated with worse survival (P < 0.001 for all predictors).
The improvement in overall survival over the past 2 decades among patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma is modest and disappointing. More effective therapeutic strategies for advanced disease are desperately needed.
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