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Abstract

People interact more readily with someone whom they think they have something in common with. At a pedestrian crossing, confederates asked participants for the time and, in one condition, said she/he had the same watch as the participant. The amount of time that participants lingered near a confederate was used as the dependent variable. Participants in the similarity condition spent significantly more time near the confederate than when no similarity was manipulated. The results showed that similarity fosters implicit behavior, adding to the growing body of data on the positive effects of similarity and its role in social interaction.
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... For example, Can and Heath (2016) found that Turkish urban dwellers engaged in substantially more stationary interactions in public spaces on weekdays than Sundays. Guéguen et al. (2011) revealed that individuals who perceive cultural similarity with strangers (through the belief that they own similar objects) spend more time in proximity to those strangers; and McCreery et al. (2015) show that in virtual environments that loosely mimic real-world spaces, users interact more frequently when the environment encourages greater conversational intensity in each interaction. ...
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... To understand the hidden mechanism of the observed correlation patterns, we identify the key factors driving the synchronization of knowledge structures. First, we assume that people are more likely to be similar when they interact more frequently and vice versa [41]. ...
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Humans acquire and accumulate knowledge through language usage and eagerly exchange their knowledge for advancement. Although geographical barriers had previously limited communication, the emergence of information technology has opened new avenues for knowledge exchange. However, it is unclear which communication pathway is dominant in the 21st century. Here, we explore the dominant path of knowledge diffusion in the 21st century using Wikipedia, the largest communal dataset. We evaluate the similarity of shared knowledge between population groups, distinguished based on their language usage. When population groups are more engaged with each other, their knowledge structure is more similar, where engagement is indicated by socioeconomic connections, such as cultural, linguistic, and historical features. Moreover, geographical proximity is no longer a critical requirement for knowledge dissemination. Furthermore, we integrate our data into a mechanistic model to better understand the underlying mechanism and suggest that the knowledge "Silk Road" of the 21st century is based online.
... and to improve relations between individuals from same-race and other-race categories. Because the eyes are critical to understanding others (Adams & Kleck, 2003;Baron-Cohen et al., 1997;Henderson et al., 2005;Macrae et al., 2002), this work offers important insights into potential interventions related to perceived similarity to decrease miscommunication and misperceptions between races and to facilitate social interactions (Guéguen et al., 2011;Walton et al., 2012;West et al., 2014aWest et al., , 2014b. ...
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One reason for the persistence of racial discrimination may be anticipated dissimilarity with racial outgroup members that prevent meaningful interactions. In the present research, we investigated whether perceived similarity would impact the processing of same-race and other-race faces. Specifically, in two experiments, we varied the extent to which White participants were ostensibly similar to targets via bogus feedback on a personality test. With an eye tracker, we measured the effect of this manipulation on attention to the eyes, a critical region for person perception and face memory. In Experiment 1, we monitored the impact of perceived interpersonal similarity on White participants’ attention to the eyes of same-race White targets. In Experiment 2, we replicated this procedure, but White participants were presented with either same-race White targets or other-race Black targets in a between-subjects design. The pattern of results in both experiments indicated a positive linear effect of similarity—greater perceived similarity between participants and targets predicted more attention to the eyes of White and Black faces. The implications of these findings related to top-down effects of perceived similarity for our understanding of basic processes in face perception, as well as intergroup relations, are discussed.
... The findings of this study suggest that ethnic minority consumers rely on and are influenced by their online social networks. Research has indicated that similarity among media users foster social network relationships (Guéguen, Martin, & Meineri, 2011). This could explain the relationship between online (friendship and language use) and offline acculturation, whereas the personal-social information is defined by the computer-mediated bond individuals have. ...
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... The 'homophily hypothesis' (Kandel, 1978) suggests individuals interact with those that share similar characteristics to themselves (Gueguen et al., 2011). There are multiple child-oriented psychology theories as to why this relationship occurs (Nangle et al., 2004;McMillan et al., 2018), with one theory termed the 'effectance motive', the need for a predictable, certain, and meaningful interpretation of the world (White, 1959). ...
Moving beyond a common brand interest, homophily is employed to understand the impact of characteristic similarity between child members of a brand community on attitudes toward the brand community and community participation desire. Three experimental studies were undertaken, assessing member similarity, respect, and member deviance with relation to brand community attitudes and participation desire. Results suggest greater similarity enhances children's attitudes toward the community and participation desire, explained by an increased respect towards the community. When a community member is deviant (disloyal), respect, and subsequently attitudes and participation desire, decline. By introducing homophily to child-oriented brand communities; this research contributes to the sparse literature, with results highlighting marketers should emphasize member similarity when promoting brand communities aimed at children.
... Similarity-attraction theory suggests individuals interact with those that share similar characteristics to themselves (Gueguen, Martin, & Meineri, 2011). This situation occurs due to the 'effectance motive', which is the need for a predictable, certain, and meaningful interpretation of the world (Byrne & Clore, 1967;White, 1959). ...
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What was noted by E. J. Langer (1978) remains true today: that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of action. As did Langer, the authors question this assumption. First, they review evidence that the ability to exercise such conscious, intentional control is actually quite limited, so that most of moment-to-moment psychological life must occur through nonconscious means if it is to occur at all. The authors then describe the different possible mechanisms that produce automatic, environmental control over these various phenomena and review evidence establishing both the existence of these mechanisms as well as their consequences for judgments, emotions, and behavior. Three major forms of automatic self-regulation are identified: an automatic effect of perception on action, automatic goal pursuit, and a continual automatic evaluation of one's experience. From the accumulating evidence, the authors conclude that these various nonconscious mental systems perform the lion's share of the self-regulatory burden, beneficently keeping the individual grounded in his or her current environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Similarity between a solicitor and a subject traditionally enhances helping behavior. An experiment was carried out in a computer-mediated context. Fifty students received an e-mail containing a 40 questions survey on their food habits which required 15-20 minutes of their time to respond. This questionnaire came from a hypothetical student of the university in which the subjects were registered. In half of the cases, the surname of the solicitor, which appeared in his/her electronic address, was the same than the surname of the target. Results show that compliance to the request was significantly higher in the same surnames condition than in the different surnames condition. The response delay was significantly shorter in the same-surnames condition than in control condition.
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We investigated whether names in common promote altruistic behaviour, predicting that this would be especially so for relatively uncommon names, for surnames (which are better kinship cues than first names), and among women (who, although less willing than men to help strangers, according to prior research, are also the primary "kin keepers"). We solicited help from 2960 email addressees, with the request ostensibly coming from a same-sex person sharing both, either, or neither of the addressee's first and last names. As anticipated, addressees were most likely to respond helpfully when senders shared both their names (12.3%) and least likely when they shared neither (2.0%), and this was especially true for relatively uncommon names. A shared surname was more effective than a shared first name only if it was relatively uncommon. Women were substantially more likely to reply than men. These results indicate that names elicit altruism because they function as salient cues of kinship.