Whole-Genome Sequences of Borrelia bissettii, Borrelia valaisiana, and Borrelia spielmanii

Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey—New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA.
Journal of bacteriology (Impact Factor: 2.81). 01/2012; 194(2):545-6. DOI: 10.1128/JB.06263-11
Source: PubMed


It has been known for decades that human Lyme disease is caused by the three spirochete species Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. Recently, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia spielmanii, and Borrelia bissettii have been associated with Lyme disease. We report the complete genome sequences of B. valaisiana VS116, B. spielmanii A14S, and B. bissettii DN127.

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Available from: Benjamin Luft
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    • "Our identification of these putative SLS-like cytolysins greatly expands the TOMM cytolysin family (Fig. 3 and Additional file 4:Table S2) and suggests that the TOMM cytolysins are not confined to Firmicutes. Of particular interest were the three potential SLS-like TOMM biosynthetic clusters we discovered among the 23 published Bbsl genomes (Fig. 4a; hereafter referred to as " Bor TOMM clusters " ), namely in B. afzelii PKo [GenBank: CP002947] [27], B. valaisiana VS116 Bank: CP001442] [28] and B. spielmanii A14S Bank: CP001465] [28]. The novel Bbsl-encoded precursor peptides were SagA homologs with core regions of similar length to our " minimal cytolytic unit " for SLS (Fig. 4b). "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Streptolysin S (SLS) is a cytolytic virulence factor produced by the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes and other Streptococcus species. Related "SLS-like" toxins have been characterized in select strains of Clostridium and Listeria, with homologous clusters bioinformatically identified in a variety of other species. SLS is a member of the thiazole/oxazole-modified microcin (TOMM) family of natural products. The structure of SLS has yet to be deciphered and many questions remain regarding its structure-activity relationships. RESULTS: In this work, we assessed the hemolytic activity of a series of C-terminally truncated SLS peptides expressed in SLS-deficient S. pyogenes. Our data indicate that while the N-terminal poly-heterocyclizable (NPH) region of SLS substantially contributes to its bioactivity, the variable C-terminal region of the toxin is largely dispensable. Through genome mining we identified additional SLS-like clusters in diverse Firmicutes, Spirochaetes and Actinobacteria. Among the Spirochaete clusters, naturally truncated SLS-like precursors were found in the genomes of three Lyme disease-causing Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) strains. Although unable to restore hemolysis in SLS-deficient S. pyogenes, a Bbsl SLS-like precursor peptide was converted to a cytolysin using purified SLS biosynthetic enzymes. A PCR-based screen demonstrated that SLS-like clusters are substantially more prevalent in Bbsl than inferred from publicly available genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The mutagenesis data described herein indicate that the minimal cytolytic unit of SLS encompasses the NPH region of the core peptide. Interestingly, this region is found in all characterized TOMM cytolysins, as well as the novel putative TOMM cytolysins we discovered. We propose that this conserved region represents the defining feature of the SLS-like TOMM family. We demonstrate the cytolytic potential of a Bbsl SLS-like precursor peptide, which has a core region of similar length to the SLS minimal cytolytic unit, when modified with purified SLS biosynthetic enzymes. As such, we speculate that some Borrelia have the potential to produce a TOMM cytolysin, although the biological significance of this finding remains to be determined. In addition to providing new insight into the structure-activity relationships of SLS, this study greatly expands the cytolysin group of TOMMs.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · BMC Microbiology
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    • "ABJY02 0.91 28.37 1 12 (Schutzer et al. 2011) Borrelia burgdorferi CA382 NC_022048 0.91 28.60 1 – UCI b Borrelia burgdorferi CA8 ADMY01 0.90 28.50 1 – UCI b Borrelia burgdorferi JD1 NC_017403 0.92 28.30 1 20 (Schutzer et al. 2011) Borrelia burgdorferi N40 NC_017418 0.90 28.24 1 16 (Schutzer et al. 2011) Borrelia burgdorferi WI91-23 ABJW02 0.90 28.29 1 20 (Schutzer et al. 2011) Borrelia burgdorferi ZS7 NC_011728 0.91 28.23 1 14 (Schutzer et al. 2011) Borrelia crocidurae Achema NC_017808 0.92 29.06 1 39 (Elbir et al. 2012) Borrelia duttonii Ly NC_011229 0.93 28.02 1 16 (Lescot et al. 2008) Borrelia garinii BgVir NC_017717 0.91 28.23 1 2 (Brenner et al. 2012) Borrelia garinii Far04 ABPZ02 0.89 27.83 1 7 (Casjens et al. 2011b) Borrelia garinii NMJW1 NC_018747 0.90 28.40 1 – (Jiang et al. 2012a) Borrelia garinii PBr ABJV02 0.90 27.83 1 11 (Casjens et al. 2011b) Borrelia hermsii HS1 NC_010673 0.92 29.81 1 2 (Dai et al. 2006) Borrelia hispanica CRI AYOU01 0.94 28.00 1 – (Elbir et al. 2014b) Borrelia miyamotoi LB-2001 NC_022079 0.91 28.70 1 – (Hue et al. 2013) Borrelia parkeri HR1 CP007022 0.92 28.90 1 – (Barbour and Miller 2014) Borrelia parkeri SLO CP005851 0.92 28.90 1 – Rocky Mountain Laboratories a Borrelia persica No12 AYOT01 0.92 28.70 1 – (Elbir et al. 2014a) Borrelia recurrentis A1 NC_011244 0.93 27.51 1 7 Unité des Rickettsies c Borrelia sp. SV1 ABJZ02 0.95 28.27 1 9 (Casjens et al. 2011a) Borrelia spielmanii A14S ABKB02 1.01 27.69 1 8 (Schutzer et al. 2012) Borrelia turicatae 91E135 NC_008710 0.92 29.10 1 – Rocky Mountain Laboratories a Borrelia valaisiana VS116 T ABCY02 0.91 25.83 1 11 (Schutzer et al. 2012) "
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Borrelia contains two groups of organisms: the causative agents of Lyme disease and their relatives and the causative agents of relapsing fever and their relatives. These two groups are morphologically indistinguishable and are difficult to distinguish biochemically. In this work, we have carried out detailed comparative genomic analyses on protein sequences from 38 Borrelia genomes to identify molecular markers in the forms of conserved signature inserts/deletions (CSIs) that are specifically found in the Borrelia homologues, and conserved signature proteins (CSPs) which are uniquely present in Borrelia species. Our analyses have identified 31 CSIs and 82 CSPs that are uniquely shared by all sequenced Borrelia species, providing molecular markers for this group of organisms. In addition, our work has identified 7 CSIs and 21 CSPs which are uniquely found in the Lyme disease Borrelia species and eight CSIs and four CSPs that are specific for members of the relapsing fever Borrelia group. Additionally, 38 other CSIs, in proteins which are uniquely found in Borrelia species, also distinguish these two groups of Borrelia. The identified CSIs and CSPs provide novel and highly specific molecular markers for identification and distinguishing between the Lyme disease Borrelia and the relapsing fever Borrelia species. We also report the results of average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis on Borrelia genomes and phylogenetic analysis for these species based upon 16S rRNA sequences and concatenated sequences for 25 conserved proteins. These analyses also support the distinctness of the two Borrelia clades. On the basis of the identified molecular markers, the results from ANI and phylogenetic studies, and the distinct pathogenicity profiles and arthropod vectors used by different Borrelia spp. for their transmission, we are proposing a division of the genus Borrelia into two separate genera: an emended genus Borrelia, containing the causative agents of relapsing fever and a novel genus, Borreliella gen. nov., containing the causative agents of Lyme disease.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
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    ABSTRACT: Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne human illness in North America. In order to understand the molecular pathogenesis, natural diversity, population structure and epizootic spread of the North American Lyme agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a much better understanding of the natural diversity of its genome will be required. Towards this end we present a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the numerous plasmids of B. burgdorferi isolates B31, N40, JD1 and 297. These strains were chosen because they include the three most commonly studied laboratory strains, and because they represent different major genetic lineages and so are informative regarding the genetic diversity and evolution of this organism. A unique feature of Borrelia genomes is that they carry a large number of linear and circular plasmids, and this work shows that strains N40, JD1, 297 and B31 carry related but non-identical sets of 16, 20, 19 and 21 plasmids, respectively, that comprise 33-40% of their genomes. We deduce that there are at least 28 plasmid compatibility types among the four strains. The B. burgdorferi ∼900 Kbp linear chromosomes are evolutionarily exceptionally stable, except for a short ≤20 Kbp plasmid-like section at the right end. A few of the plasmids, including the linear lp54 and circular cp26, are also very stable. We show here that the other plasmids, especially the linear ones, are considerably more variable. Nearly all of the linear plasmids have undergone one or more substantial inter-plasmid rearrangements since their last common ancestor. In spite of these rearrangements and differences in plasmid contents, the overall gene complement of the different isolates has remained relatively constant.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · PLoS ONE
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