Article

# KEPLER-21b: A 1.6 REarth planet transiting the bright oscillating F subgiant star HD179070

The Astrophysical Journal (Impact Factor: 5.99). 02/2012; 746:123 (18pp). DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/746/2/123

Source: arXiv

**ABSTRACT**

We present Kepler observations of the bright (V = 8.3), oscillating star HD 179070. The observations show transit-like events which reveal that the star is orbited every 2.8 days by a small, 1.6 R

Earth object. Seismic studies of HD 179070 using short cadence Kepler observations show that HD 179070 has a frequency-power spectrum consistent with solar-like oscillations that are acoustic p-modes. Asteroseismic analysis provides robust values for the mass and radius of HD 179070, 1.34 ± 0.06 M

☉ and 1.86 ± 0.04 R

☉, respectively, as well as yielding an age of 2.84 ± 0.34 Gyr for this F5 subgiant. Together with ground-based follow-up observations, analysis of the Kepler light curves and image data, and blend scenario models, we conservatively show at the >99.7% confidence level (3σ) that the transit event is caused by a 1.64 ± 0.04 R

Earth exoplanet in a 2.785755 ± 0.000032 day orbit. The exoplanet is only 0.04 AU away from the star and our spectroscopic observations provide an upper limit to its mass of ~10 M

Earth (2σ). HD 179070 is the brightest exoplanet host star yet discovered by Kepler.

Earth object. Seismic studies of HD 179070 using short cadence Kepler observations show that HD 179070 has a frequency-power spectrum consistent with solar-like oscillations that are acoustic p-modes. Asteroseismic analysis provides robust values for the mass and radius of HD 179070, 1.34 ± 0.06 M

☉ and 1.86 ± 0.04 R

☉, respectively, as well as yielding an age of 2.84 ± 0.34 Gyr for this F5 subgiant. Together with ground-based follow-up observations, analysis of the Kepler light curves and image data, and blend scenario models, we conservatively show at the >99.7% confidence level (3σ) that the transit event is caused by a 1.64 ± 0.04 R

Earth exoplanet in a 2.785755 ± 0.000032 day orbit. The exoplanet is only 0.04 AU away from the star and our spectroscopic observations provide an upper limit to its mass of ~10 M

Earth (2σ). HD 179070 is the brightest exoplanet host star yet discovered by Kepler.

Get notified about updates to this publication Follow publication |

Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.

- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**We present the discovery of the Kepler-20 planetary system, which we initially identified through the detection of five distinct periodic transit signals in the Kepler light curve of the host star 2MASSJ19104752+4220194. We find a stellar effective temperature Teff=5455+-100K, a metallicity of [Fe/H]=0.01+-0.04, and a surface gravity of log(g)=4.4+-0.1. Combined with an estimate of the stellar density from the transit light curves we deduce a stellar mass of Mstar=0.912+-0.034 Msun and a stellar radius of Rstar=0.944^{+0.060}_{-0.095} Rsun. For three of the transit signals, our results strongly disfavor the possibility that these result from astrophysical false positives. We conclude that the planetary scenario is more likely than that of an astrophysical false positive by a factor of 2e5 (Kepler-20b), 1e5 (Kepler-20c), and 1.1e3 (Kepler-20d), sufficient to validate these objects as planetary companions. For Kepler-20c and Kepler-20d, the blend scenario is independently disfavored by the achromaticity of the transit: From Spitzer data gathered at 4.5um, we infer a ratio of the planetary to stellar radii of 0.075+-0.015 (Kepler-20c) and 0.065+-0.011 (Kepler-20d), consistent with each of the depths measured in the Kepler optical bandpass. We determine the orbital periods and physical radii of the three confirmed planets to be 3.70d and 1.91^{+0.12}_{-0.21} Rearth for Kepler-20b, 10.85 d and 3.07^{+0.20}_{-0.31} Rearth for Kepelr-20c, and 77.61 d and 2.75^{+0.17}_{-0.30} Rearth for Kepler-20d. From multi-epoch radial velocities, we determine the masses of Kepler-20b and Kepler-20c to be 8.7\+-2.2 Mearth and 16.1+-3.5 Mearth, respectively, and we place an upper limit on the mass of Kepler-20d of 20.1 Mearth (2 sigma). - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**We present long-baseline interferometry of the Kepler exoplanet host star HD179070 (Kepler-21) using the PAVO beam combiner at the CHARA Array. The visibility data are consistent with a single star and exclude stellar companions at separations ~1-1000 mas (~ 0.1-113 AU) and contrasts < 3.5 magnitudes. This result supports the validation of the 1.6 R_{earth} exoplanet Kepler-21b by Howell et al. (2012) and complements the constraints set by adaptive optics imaging, speckle interferometry, and radial velocity observations to rule out false-positives due to stellar companions. We conclude that long-baseline interferometry has strong potential to validate transiting extrasolar planets, particularly for future projects aimed at brighter stars and for host stars where radial velocity follow-up is not available. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Solar-like oscillations have been observed by Kepler and CoRoT in several solar-type stars, thereby providing a way to probe the stars using asteroseismology. We provide the mode frequencies of the oscillations of various stars required to perform a comparison with those obtained from stellar modelling. We used a time series of nine months of data for each star. The 61 stars observed were categorised in three groups: simple, F-like and mixed-mode. The simple group includes stars for which the identification of the mode degree is obvious. The F-like group includes stars for which the identification of the degree is ambiguous. The mixed-mode group includes evolved stars for which the modes do not follow the asymptotic relation of low-degree frequencies. Following this categorisation, the power spectra of the 61 main sequence and subgiant stars were analysed using both maximum likelihood estimators and Bayesian estimators, providing individual mode characteristics such as frequencies, linewidths, and mode heights. We developed and describe a methodology for extracting a single set of mode frequencies from multiple sets derived by different methods and individual scientists. We report on how one can assess the quality of the fitted parameters using the likelihood ratio test and the posterior probabilities. We provide the mode frequencies of 61 stars (with their 1-sigma error bars), as well as their associated echelle diagrams.