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Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Reactive Routing Protocols

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Abstract

In this paper, we have modeled the routing over- head generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficient routing is sum of the cost paid in the form of energy consumed and time spent. These protocols majorly focus on the optimization performed by expanding ring search algorithm to control the flooding generated by the mechanism of blind flooding. So, we have modeled the energy consumed and time spent per packet both for route discovery and route maintenance. The proposed framework is evaluated in NS-2 to compare performance of the chosen routing protocols.

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... The authors in [6] investigate the effectiveness of this ERS scheme by exactly counting the number of control messages during routing discovery procedure. They select AODV to compare the routing loads in two cases; with and without ERS. ...
... Modeling the routing overhead generated by three well known reactive protocols; AODV, DSR and DYMO is presented in our previous work [6]. In this frame work, route discovery and route maintenance routing overhead is modeled in terms of routing packets and latency costs. ...
... Comparative to the above mentioned works, we present a frame work for ERS. We select three reactive protocols; AODV, DSR and DYMO like in [6]. These protocols use ERS as a route discovery mechanism, so we model routing overhead of ERS for these protocols naming it ERS1. ...
Article
In case of high dynamic topology, reactive routing protocols provide quick convergence by faster route discoveries and route maintenance. Frequent roadcasts reduce routing efficiency in terms of broadcast cost; Bk, and expected time cost; E[t]. These costs are optimized using different mechanisms. So, we select three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), and DYnamic Manet On-demad (DYMO). We model expanding Ring Search (ERS); an optimization mechanism in the selected protocols to reduce Bk and E[t]. A novel contribution of this work is enhancement of default ERS in the protocols to optimize Bk and E[t]. Using NS-2, we evaluate and compare default-ERS used by these protocols; AODV-ERS1, DSR-ERS1 and DYMO-ERS1 with enhanced-ERS; AODVERS2, DSR-ERS2 and DYMO-ERS2. From modeling and analytical comparison, we deduce that by adjusting Time-To-Live (T TL) value of a network, efficient optimizations of Bk and E[t] can be achieved.
... In our previous work [29], we model the routing overhead incurred by AODV, DSR and DYMO in terms of energy and time costs for the generated control packets. We presented a framework for RD and RM of the protocols. ...
... Inspiring from [29], [30], we enhance the framework of [30] for LL and NL link sensing mechanisms. Moreover, to validate the proposed framework, we simulate AODV, DSR and DYMO with two link sensing mechanisms; LL and NL. ...
... An R i which generates RREP(s) is called R rrep and ring up to maximum T T L limit is known R max limit resulting in either successful or unsuccessful RD. Therefore, C E (R i ) is computed from our previous work in [29] as: ...
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To keep information recent between two nodes, two types of link sensing feed-back mechanisms are used; Link Layer (LL) and Network Layer (NL). In this paper, we model and evaluate these link sensing mechanisms in three widely used reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-demand (DYMO). Total cost paid by a routing protocol is the sum of cost paid in the form of energy consumed (in terms of packet reception/transmission) and time spent (in terms of processing route information). Routing operations are divided into two phases; Route Discovery (RD) and Route Maintenance (RM). These protocols majorly focuss on broadcast cost optimization performed by Expanding Ring Search (ERS) algorithm to control blind flooding. Hence, our model relates link sensing mechanisms in RD and RM for the September 10, 2014 DRAFT 2 selected routing protocols to compute consumed energy and processing time. The proposed framework is evaluated via NS-2, where the selected protocols are tested with different nodes' mobilities and densities.
... and dynamic network and OLSR is designed for static and dense networks [4]. In [5], we have investigated three widely used reactive protocols, so, in this work we focus proactive ones. ...
... They also evaluate derivatives of two metrics; total energy consumption and route discovery latency for DSDV, DSR, AODV-LL and Gossiping. But they only model DSDV among proactive protocols, while we model FSR and OLSR along with DSDV with remarkable details. (We have modeled AODV, DSR and DYMO in [5]). They consider flooding based route discovery impacts over routing protocols, but we model MPR flooding in OLSR, MSR (no flooding) with GF T in FSR along with simple flooding of DSDV. ...
Article
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... FSR uses InterScope and IntraScope [9]. Figure 3 shows the energy cost for IntraScope, (in) , with 2 hops search diameter, and energy cost for 255 hops InterScope, out-sco , respectively. The energy cost of a single packet for FSR ( (FSR) ) is calculated from [22] as (4) OLSR. OLSR (refer to its flow chart in Figure 5) maintains fresh routes via RU Tri throughout the network, and at routing layer LSM Per are sent through HELLO messages. ...
... If the status of MPRs' does not change then default TC interval is used to transmit TC messages (refer to Table 2). The cost of (re)transmissions which are allowed through MPRs is denoted by MPR -nc , and the cost of update messages dissemination throughout the network is denoted by MPR - [22]. Consider ...
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... II. REACTIVE PROTOCOLS WITH THEIR BASIC OPERATIONS The protocols use two basic operations; RD and RM. The total Energy Cost (CE) for reactive protocol, rp; CE rp total [11]: ...
... In AODV-LL, E2ED becomes much less as compared to routing latency of AODV, because LLR initiation and repairement starts quickly after receiving link layer feed-back (link layer beacon messages to check the connectivity is send 100 times in a second, and after 8 connective failure notify link breakage), as depicted in Figs. 5,6,7 and 8. DSR does not implement LLR [10], [11], therefore, its CT value is less than AODV but during moderate and high mobility RC search fails frequently and results high routing delay. ...
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... The works in [9][10][11][12][13], study the most widely experimented and frequently used protocols for our study; three from reactive or on-demand class: AODV, DSR, DYMO, and three from proactive or table-driven class DSDV, FSR, OLSR. . ...
... Therefore, we have taken it as 0.8 sec for active roues. The complete information about NRO of DSR and DYMO is discussed in [12] and information about NRO of DSDV is given in [13]. ...
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... Route Request is propagated in entire network till destination is find. If we consider that source and destination nodes of a network are placed at opposite corners of network, then they bear highest number of hops [11]. As shown in Fig. 1, when a RREQ is generated on the originator node, there are four neighbors, though, from second tier up to n tiers, number of effective neighbors are three. ...
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... Their evaluation based on mathematical model is generalized for proactive class, however, in our work, we specifically discuss the behavior of reactive (AODV, DSR, DYMO) along with proactive protocols (DSDV, FSR and OLSR). In the study of [14] , the authors compare the performance of AODV, OLSR and the Statistic- Based Routing (SBR) in terms of reliability and routing overhead of different traffic patterns using OPNET. They simulate OLSR and AODV as implemented in their respective RFCs except for the í µí±‰_í µí±¡í µí±–í µí±ší µí±’ (Valid time [11]) of Topology Control (TC) messages in OLSR which is decreased the value of í µí±‡í µí° ¶_í µí°¼í µí±í µí±‡í µí°¸í µí±…í µí±‰í µí°´í µí°¿ along with í µí°»í µí°¸í µí°¿í µí°¿í µí±‚_í µí°¼í µí±í µí±‡í µí°¸í µí±…í µí±‰í µí°´í µí°¿ to reduce the reaction time. ...
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... Behavior of three on-demand routing protocols; AODV, DSR and DYnamic MANET On-demand (DYMO), is compared in different network demands in MANETs in [6]. Authors select performance measuring metrics; throughput, packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay. ...
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... So, to provide the reader with a comprehensive idea about routing and how do the routing protocols react to the topological changes [6], we have chosen the most widely experimented and frequently used protocols for our study; three from reactive or on-demand class: AODV, DSR, DYMO, and three from proactive or table-driven class DSDV, FSR, OLSR. In[15], we have modeled the routing overhead generated by three reactive routing protocols; AODV, DSR and DYMO. We have modeled the energy consumed and time spent per packet both for route discovery and route mainte-nance. ...
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... 2) DSR: In DSR (refer its flow chart infig. 2 broken route. From [21] the energy cost of RD 'C ...
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... In DSR (refer to its flow chart in Figure 2), searching routes in route cache (RC) of the nodes is known as RCing. [21] the energy cost of RD " (DSR) -RD " is computed as follows: ...
... In DSR (refer to its flow chart in Figure 2), searching routes in route cache (RC) of the nodes is known as RCing. [21] the energy cost of RD " (DSR) -RD " is computed as follows: ...
... Therefore we have taken it as 0.8 sec for active roues. The complete information about the NRO of DSR and DYMO is discussed in [27] and information about NRO of DSDV is given in [28]. ...
Thesis
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... Besides comparing different routing protocols to give appropriate protocol for appropriate environment is also helpful [18]. Considering existing work done on this subject, ( [19], [21]) provide analytical framework for calculating routing overhead of reactive protocols. They quantify route discovery process, i.e., overhead due to route REQuest packets and route REPly packets of any network underlying a reactive routing protocol. ...
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: The present note proposes a survey of protocol overheads in mobile ad-hoc networks. An analysis is proposed to estimate overhead due to control packets. An analysis and simulations are proposed to estimate overhead due to non-optimality of the routes constructed by some protocols. Key-words: wireless network, ad-hoc, overhead, ooding, hello (Rsum : tsvp) Email: Philippe.Jacquet@inria.fr y Email: Laurent.Viennot@inria.fr Unite de recherche INRIA Rocquencourt Domaine de Voluceau, Rocquencourt, BP 105, 78153 LE CHESNAY Cedex (France) Telephone : 01 39 63 55 11 - International : +33 1 39 63 55 11 Telecopie : (33) 01 39 63 53 30 - International : +33 1 39 63 53 30 Overhead dans les protocoles de rseaux sans l ad-hoc Rsum : Plusieurs protocoles de routages sont proposs pour les rseaux sans l ad-hoc (sans infrastructure). Pour les comparer, nous proposons une analyse de la surcharge de trac apporte par les protocoles eux-mmes. Une synthse sur les dirents protocoles existan...