Article

The Beneficial Role of Vitamin D in Alzheimer's Disease

Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation, Westminster, CA 92683, USA.
American Journal of Alzheimer s Disease and Other Dementias (Impact Factor: 1.63). 11/2011; 26(7):511-20. DOI: 10.1177/1533317511429321
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly individuals and is associated with progressive neurodegeneration of the human neocortex. Patients with AD have a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, which is also associated with low mood and impaired cognitive performance in older people. Genetic studies have provided the opportunity to determine which proteins link vitamin D to AD pathology (ie, the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, vitamin D receptor, renin-angiotensin system, apolipoprotein E, liver X receptor, Sp1 promoter gene, and the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 gene). Vitamin D also exerts its effect on AD through nongenomic factors, that is, L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, nerve growth factor, the prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase 2, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide synthase. In conclusion, vitamin D clearly has a beneficial role in AD and improves cognitive function in some patients with AD. Calcitriol, 1 α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is best used for AD because of its active form of vitamin D(3) metabolite and its receptor in the central nervous system.

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    • "As research progresses, many similarities appear which relate these diseases to one another on a sub-cellular level. Interestingly, vitamin D was shown to have a role in these neurodegenerative diseases [73,74]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly individuals and is associated with progressive memory loss and cognitive dysfunction. A significant association between AD and low levels of vitamin D has been demonstrated. Furthermore, vitamin D supplements appear to have a beneficial clinical effect on AD by regulating micro-RNA, enhancing toll-like receptors, modulating vascular endothelial factor expression, modulating angiogenin, and advanced glycation end products. Vitamin D also exerts its effects on AD by regulating calcium-sensing receptor expression, enhancing amyloid-β peptides clearance, interleukin 10, downregulating matrix metalloproteinases, upregulating heme oxygenase 1, and suppressing the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate expression. In conclusion, vitamin D may play a beneficial role in AD. Calcitriol is the best vitamin D supplement for AD, because it is the active form of the vitamin D(3) metabolite and modulates inflammatory cytokine expression. Therefore, further investigation of the role of calcitriol in AD is needed.
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