A high-throughput fluorescence polarization anisotropy assay for the 70N domain of replication protein A

Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.
Analytical Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 2.22). 12/2011; 421(2):742-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2011.11.025
Source: PubMed


Replication protein A (RPA) interacts with multiple checkpoint proteins and promotes signaling through the ATR kinase, a key regulator of checkpoint pathways in the mammalian response to DNA damage. In cancer cells, increased DNA repair activity contributes to resistance to chemotherapy. Therefore, small molecules that block binding of checkpoint proteins to RPA may inhibit the DNA damage response and, thus, sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents. Here we report on the development of a homogeneous, high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay for identifying compounds that block the critical protein-protein interaction site in the basic cleft of the 70N domain of RPA (RPA70N). A fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled peptide derived from the ATR cofactor, ATRIP, was used as a probe in the binding assay. The ability of the assay to accurately detect relevant ligands was confirmed using peptides derived from ATRIP, RAD9, MRE11, and p53. The assay was validated for use in high-throughput screening using the Spectrum collection of 2000 compounds. The FPA assay was performed with a Z' factor of ≥ 0.76 in a 384-well format and identified several compounds capable of inhibiting the RPA70N binding interface.

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Available from: Elaine Maria Souza-Fagundes, Jun 06, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Replication protein A (RPA), essential for DNA replication, repair and DNA damage signalling, possesses six ssDNA-binding domains (DBDs), including DBD-F on the N-terminus of the largest subunit, RPA70. This domain functions as a binding site for p53 and other DNA damage and repair proteins that contain amphipathic alpha helical domains. Here, we demonstrate direct binding of both ssDNA and the transactivation domain 2 of p53 (p53TAD2) to DBD-F, as well as DBD-F-directed dsDNA strand separation by RPA, all of which are inhibited by fumaropimaric acid (FPA). FPA binds directly to RPA, resulting in a conformational shift as determined through quenching of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence in full length RPA. Structural analogues of FPA provide insight on chemical properties that are required for inhibition. Finally, we confirm the inability of RPA possessing R41E and R43E mutations to bind to p53, destabilize dsDNA and quench tryptophan fluorescence by FPA, suggesting that protein binding, DNA modulation and inhibitor binding all occur within the same site on DBD-F. The disruption of p53–RPA interactions by FPA may disturb the regulatory functions of p53 and RPA, thereby inhibiting cellular pathways that control the cell cycle and maintain the integrity of the human genome.
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    ABSTRACT: Replication Protein A (RPA) is a ssDNA binding protein that is essential for DNA replication and repair. The initiation of the DNA damage response by RPA is mediated by protein-protein interactions involving the N-terminal domain of the 70 kDa subunit with partner proteins. Inhibition of these interactions increases sensitivity towards DNA damage and replication stress and may therefore be a potential strategy for cancer drug discovery. Towards this end, we have discovered two lead series of compounds, derived from hits obtained from a fragment-based screen, that bind to RPA70N with low micromolar affinity and inhibit the binding of an ATRIP-derived peptide to RPA. These compounds may offer a promising starting point for the discovery of clinically useful RPA inhibitors.
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    ABSTRACT: Replication Protein A (RPA) is the primary single stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein in eukaryotes. The N-terminal domain of the RPA70 subunit (RPA70N) interacts via a basic cleft with a wide range of DNA processing proteins, including several that regulate DNA damage response and repair. Small molecule inhibitors that disrupt these protein-protein interactions are therefore of interest as chemical probes of these critical DNA processing pathways and as inhibitors to counter the up-regulation of DNA damage response and repair associated with treatment of cancer patients with radiation or DNA damaging agents. Determination of three-dimensional structures of protein-ligand complexes is an important step for elaboration of small molecule inhibitors. However, although crystal structures of free RPA70N and an RPA70N-peptide fusion construct have been reported, RPA70N-inhibitor complexes have been recalcitrant to crystallization. Analysis of the P61 lattice of RPA70N crystals led us to hypothesize that the ligand-binding surface was occluded. Surface reengineering to alter key crystal lattice contacts lead to the design of RPA70N E7R, E100R and E7R, E100R mutants. These mutants crystallized in a P212121 lattice that clearly had significant solvent channels open to the critical basic cleft. Analysis of X-ray crystal structures, target peptide binding affinities, and (15)N-(1)H HSQC NMR spectra showed that the mutations do not result in perturbations of the RPA70N ligand-binding surface. The success of the design was demonstrated by determining the structure of RPA70N E7R soaked with a ligand discovered in a previously reported molecular fragment screen. A fluorescence anisotropy competition binding assay revealed this compound can inhibit the interaction of RPA70N with the peptide binding motif from the DNA damage response protein ATRIP. The implications of the results are discussed in the context of ongoing efforts to design RPA70N inhibitors.
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