The Stress-Induced Cytokine Interleukin-6 Decreases the Inhibition/Excitation Ratio in the Rat Temporal Cortex via Trans-Signaling

School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, 75080, USA.
Biological psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.26). 04/2012; 71(7):574–582. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.11.018
Source: PubMed


Although it is known that stress elevates the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes hyper-excitable central conditions, a causal relationship between these two factors has not yet been identified. Recent studies suggest that increases in interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels are specifically associated with stress. We hypothesized that IL-6 acutely and directly induces cortical hyper-excitability by altering the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition.
We used patch-clamp to determine the effects of exogenous or endogenous IL-6 on electrically evoked postsynaptic currents on a cortical rat slice preparation. We used control subjects or animals systemically injected with lipopolysaccharide or subjected to electrical foot-shock as rat models of stress.
In control animals, IL-6 did not affect excitatory postsynaptic currents but selectively and reversibly reduced the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents with a postsynaptic effect. The IL-6-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents decrease was inhibited by drugs interfering with receptor trafficking and/or internalization, including wortmannin, Brefeldin A, 2-Br-hexadecanoic acid, or dynamin peptide inhibitor. In both animal models, stress-induced decrease in synaptic inhibition/excitation ratio was prevented by prior intra-ventricular injection of an analog of the endogenous IL-6 trans-signaling blocker gp130.
Our results suggest that stress-induced IL-6 shifts the balance between synaptic inhibition and excitation in favor of the latter, possibly by decreasing the density of functional γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors, accelerating their removal and/or decreasing their insertion rate from/to the plasma membrane. We speculate that this mechanism could contribute to stress-induced detrimental long-term increases in central excitability present in a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions.

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Available from: Francisco Garcia-Oscos
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    • "Gabazine (20 mM) was used to block GABA A receptor (GABA A R)-mediated currents. After recording of an initial baseline for 10–15 min, drugs were bath applied for 10 min or longer until they had reached a stable condition as defined in Statistical Analysis (Garcia-Oscos et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Stress is a potential trigger for a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including anxiety syndromes and schizophrenic psychoses. The temporal neocortex is a stress-sensitive area involved in the development of such conditions. We have recently shown that aseptic inflammation and mild electric shock shift the balance between synaptic excitation and synaptic inhibition in favor of the former in this brain area (Garcia-Oscos et al., 2012), as well as in the prefrontal cortex (Garcia-Oscos et al., 2014). Given the potential clinical importance of this phenomenon in the etiology of hyperexcitable neuropsychiatric illness, this study investigates whether inactivation of the peripheral immune system by the “anti-inflammatory reflex” would reduce the central response to aseptic inflammation. For a model of aseptic inflammation, this study used i.p. injections of the bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 µM) and activated the anti-inflammatory reflex either pharmacologically by i.p. injections of the nicotinic α7 receptor agonist PHA543613 or physiologically through electrical stimulation of the left vagal nerve (VNS). Patch-clamp recording was used to monitor synaptic function. Recordings from LPS-injected Sprague Dawley rats show that activation of the anti-inflammatory reflex either pharmacologically or by VNS blocks or greatly reduces the LPS-induced decrease of the synaptic inhibitory-to-excitatory ratio and the saturation level of inhibitory current input–output curves. Given the ample variety of pharmacologically available α7 nicotinic receptor agonists as well as the relative safety of clinical VNS already approved by the FDA for the treatment of epilepsy and depression, our findings suggest a new therapeutic avenue in the treatment of stress-induced hyperexcitable conditions mediated by a decrease in synaptic inhibition in the temporal cortex.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Neuroscience Research
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    • "Hippocampal slices from naive rats were incubated for one hour with or without 3 ng/ml IL-1β, 3 ng/ml IL-6, 10 μM (2.34 μg/ml) lidocaine, or 10 μM lidocaine plus 3 ng/ml IL-1β in aCSF before TEA stimulation. Those treatment concentrations of cytokines were based on previous studies [24,25]. The lidocaine concentration was chosen because this concentration provided neuroprotection against oxygen-glucose deprivation in hippocampal slices and lipopolysaccharide-induced brain cell injury [26,27]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Patients with postoperative cognitive dysfunction have poor outcomes. Neuroinflammation may be the underlying pathophysiology for this dysfunction. We determined whether proinflammatory cytokines affect the trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors to the plasma membrane, a fundamental biochemical process for learning and memory. Methods Four-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to right carotid exposure under isoflurane anesthesia. Some rats received intravenous lidocaine infusion during anesthesia. Rats were tested two weeks later by Barnes maze. The hippocampus was harvested six hours after the surgery for western blotting of interleukin (IL)-1β or IL-6. Hippocampal slices were prepared from control rats or rats subjected to surgery two weeks previously. They were incubated with tetraethylammonium, an agent that can induce long term potentiation, for determining the trafficking of GluR1, an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunit. Results Surgery or anesthesia increased the time to identify the target box during the Barnes maze test training sessions and one day after the training sessions. Surgery also prolonged the time to identify the target box eight days after the training sessions. Surgery increased IL-1β and IL-6 in the hippocampus. The tetraethylammonium–induced GluR1 phosphorylation and trafficking were abolished in the hippocampal slices of rats after surgery. These surgical effects were partly inhibited by lidocaine. The incubation of control hippocampal slices with IL-1β and IL-6 abolished tetraethylammonium–induced GluR1 trafficking and phosphorylation. Lidocaine minimally affected the effects of IL-1β on GluR1 trafficking. Conclusions Our results suggest that surgery increases proinflammatory cytokines that then inhibit GluR1 trafficking, leading to learning and memory impairment.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Neuroinflammation
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Brain Behavior and Immunity
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