NMR analysis of metabolic responses to extreme conditions of the temperature-dependent coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus
Analytical Chemistry Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, Charleston, SC 29412, USA. Letters in Applied Microbiology
(Impact Factor: 1.66).
12/2011; 54(3):209-16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2011.03200.x
To identify and understand the presence of metabolites responsible for the variation in the metabolic profile of Vibrio coralliilyticus under extreme conditions.
Multiple batches of V. coralliilyticus were grown under normal conditions. Four samples in one batch were subjected to extreme conditions via a freeze-thaw cycle during lyophilization. Polar metabolites were extracted using a combination of methanol, water and heat. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic profiles indicated significant differences between the normal and stressed samples. Three compounds identified in the stressed metabolome were maltose, ethanolamine, and the bioplastic-type compound (BTC) 2-butenoic acid, 2-carboxy-1-methylethyl ester. This is the first report of the production of this BTC by V. coralliilyticus.
The presence of maltose and ethanolamine indicates a state of acute nutrient limitation; therefore, we hypothesize that the cell's metabolism turned to its own cell wall, or perhaps neighbouring cells, for sources of carbon and nitrogen. The presence of the BTC also supports the acute nutrient limitation idea because of the parallels with polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production in other gram-negative bacteria, including other Vibrio species.
Recent metabolomics research on the temperature-dependent coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus has led to the discovery of several compounds produced by the organism as a response to high density, low nutrient conditions. The three metabolites, along with (1) H NMR metabolic fingerprints of the nutrient limited samples, are proposed to serve as metabolic markers for extremely stressful conditions of V. coralliilyticus.
Available from: Xiaoyu Hu
- "Low temperature quenching is accepted by most researchers. The particular quenching temperature and agents range from 0 °C (ice or ice cold 0.9 % NaCl), to –40/–50 °C (60 % methanol), to almost –200 °C (liquid N 2 ) (Boroujerdi et al. 2012; Dietmair et al. 2010; Lodi and Ronen 2011; Sellick et al. 2009; Ye et al. 2012a); (3) metabolites extraction. This step is the most variable among all the sample preparation procedures. "
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ABSTRACT: Pre-analytical treatments of bacteria are crucial steps in bacterial metabolomics studies. In order to achieve reliable samples that can best represent the global metabolic profile in vivo both qualitatively and quantitatively, many sample treatment procedures have been developed. The use of different methods makes it difficult to compare the results among different groups. In this work, E. coli samples were tested by using NMR spectroscopy. Both liquid N2 and cold methanol quenching procedures reduce the cell membrane integrity and cause metabolites leakage. However, liquid N2 quenching affected the cell viability and the NMR metabolites’ profile less than cold methanol procedure. Samples obtained by metabolite extraction were significantly superior over cell suspensions and cell lysates, with a higher number of detectable metabolites. Methanol/chloroform extraction proved most efficient at extraction of intracellular metabolites from both qualitative and quantitative points of view. Finally, standard operating procedures of bacterial sample treatments for NMR metabolomics study are presented.
Available from: Giacomo R. DiTullio
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ABSTRACT: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to obtain metabolic profiles of the polar diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus, leading to the identification of a novel metabolite in this organism. Initial results from an ongoing metabolomics study have led to the discovery of isethionic acid (2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid, CAS: 107-36-8) as a major metabolite in F. cylindrus. This compound is being produced by the organism under normal culture conditions. This finding is the first report of a diatom producing isethionic acid. In addition to isethionic acid, four other metabolites, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), betaine, homarine, and proline were present and may serve as osmoprotectants in F. cylindrus. NMR-based metabolite profiles of F. cylindrus were obtained along a growth curve of the organism. The relative concentration levels of the five metabolites were monitored over a growth period of F. cylindrus from 18 to 25 days. All showed an increase in relative concentration with time, except for proline, which began to decrease after day 21.
Available from: Jorge Huete-Perez
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ABSTRACT: Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.
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