Thrombolysis and thromboaspiration for acute thromboembolic occlusion in the upper extremity
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, 7-1 Funabashi, Wadanaka-cho, Fukui, 918-8503, Japan. Japanese journal of radiology
(Impact Factor: 0.84).
12/2011; 30(2):180-4. DOI: 10.1007/s11604-011-0022-y
To report technical aspects of thrombolysis and thromboaspiration for acute thromboembolic occlusion in the upper extremity.
This study included four consecutive patients with acute thromboembolic occlusion in the upper extremity (right arm, n = 3; left arm n = 1). The mean patient age was 81.3 ± 11.5 years (mean ± standard deviation; range 69-92 years) and all patients had chronic atrial fibrillation. Emergent angiography was performed via the femoral artery.
Thromboembolic occlusion was demonstrated in the axillary artery (n = 2), axillary and radial arteries (n = 1), and brachial, radial, and ulnar arteries (n = 1). Endovascular treatment was performed via the unaffected brachial (n = 3) or radial artery (n = 1). Thrombolysis was performed for three patients using 360,000-480,000 IU (mean 400,000 ± 69,000 IU) urokinase, including 12-h continuous infusion in one. Thromboaspiration was performed in all four patients using a 6F catheter. Recanalization was achieved in all patients and all arms were salvaged. Perforation of the small branch during guidewire manipulation was successfully managed by placement of a microcoil.
The combination of thrombolysis and thromboaspiration is effective for acute thromboembolic occlusion in the upper extremity.
Available from: Stavros Spiliopoulos
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This study was designed to investigate the incidence of arterial embolization using a peripheral protection filter device in a series of patients undergoing percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy for the management of thrombosed hemodialysis arteriovenous grafts (AVGs).
This prospective, single-center study included all eligible patients presenting during an 18-month period to undergo AVG percutaneous thrombectomy. Inclusion criteria was a recently thrombosed AVG with 2 cm of artery before the next arterial branching. Primary endpoint was the incidence of distal arterial macro- and micro-embolization determined by both digital subtraction angiography and histopathological analysis of the material collected. Secondary endpoints included quantitative measurements of the specimens using a 0+ (no material) to 3+ (maximum load) score.
In total, 42 patients met the study's inclusion criteria. No procedure-related complications or angiographically evident arterial embolization were noted. Macroscopically evident material was present in 47.6% (20/42 filters). Histopathology demonstrated that the embolic material was primary consisted of fibrin conglomerates and platelets (median score: 1.5, confidence interval: 1.0-3.0), whereas inflammatory cells, trapped erythrocytes, extracellular matrix, cholesterol clefts, foam cells, necrotic core, and smooth muscle cells also were detected. Mean total area of embolic material was 5.04 mm(2) (range 0.05-5.21). The mean major axis of the largest particle was 1.83 mm (range 0.29-6.64), whereas 19% (8/42) contained particles with major axis >1 mm and 12% (5/42) with major axis >3 mm.
In this study, the percentage of arterial micro-embolization was significantly higher than previously reported. However, the detrimental, long-term, clinical relevance remains to be determined.
Available from: Zhongyu Li
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ABSTRACT: Limited evidence exists to guide clinical management of acute finger ischemia (AFI). To further inform diagnostic evaluation and decision making, we evaluated anatomic findings, procedural management, and amputation-free survival in an institutional cohort of patients with AFI.
Consecutive patients undergoing transfemoral upper extremity angiography for AFI were identified. Clinical, laboratory, and procedural data were collected retrospectively from medical records, and arteriograms were reviewed to characterize anatomic findings. Telephone interviews were used to determine long-term outcomes, and additional symptomatic assessments (Symptom Severity and Functional Status scale, the Cold Sensitivity Severity scale, and the McGill Pain Severity Scale) were available in a subgroup of patients. Outcomes included anatomic findings, use of thrombolysis, complications, and amputation-free survival. Descriptive statistics and survival analysis were used to evaluate results.
Thirty-five patients (54% women) were analyzed with a median follow-up of 13.7 months. Symptom duration at time of presentation ranged from 1 to 28 days, and seven patients had tissue loss or gangrene, or both. Mean age was 47.7 ± 12.2 years. Baseline characteristics included smoking in 22 (65%), connective tissue disorder in 11 (31%), and history of repetitive hand trauma in 10 (29%). The most frequent anatomic location of arterial pathology identified during angiography was distal to the wrist (n = 32), including eight ulnar/radial aneurysms; upper arm (n = 3) and forearm (n = 8) lesions were less common. Sixteen patients were treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis, of which eight (50%) had interval anatomic improvement on repeat angiography. Procedure-related adverse events associated with angiography included bleeding (n = 3) and pseudoaneurysm (n = 1). Eleven of 35 patients had subsequent surgical revascularization at a median of 15 days after angiography. Estimated (standard error) amputation-free survival was 0.88 (0.07) at 1 month and 0.84 (0.08) at 6 months among patients without tissue loss or gangrene. Estimated 60-day amputation-free survival was 0.84 (standard error, 0.08). Overall amputation-free survival was similar between patients managed with vs without thrombolysis (P = .61), but subgroup analysis of those patients without tissue loss or gangrene at the time of presentation revealed a trend toward improved amputation-free survival with use of thrombolysis, with 60-day amputation-free survival of 0.92 vs 0.75 (P = .12). Persistent late symptoms were present in 17 patients (48.6%) at the last follow-up and were generally characterized as mild by functional and pain scale assessments.
Angiography performed for AFI frequently identifies distal occlusive disease, and catheter-directed thrombolysis may expand revascularization options in select patients.
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ABSTRACT: Distal arm and hand ischemia from vessel thrombosis or embolism remains a difficult clinical challenge. The causes of ischemia are variable and include connective tissue disease, embolism, atherosclerosis, and iatrogenic etiology. Although reports are limited, treatment with catheter-directed thrombolysis has favorable results in cases of acute thrombosis, with most patients (80%) demonstrating improvement. Digital amputation rates are less than 10% and the hand is often salvaged. Bleeding and access-site complications remain prevalent in patients undergoing intra-arterial thrombolysis. This review discusses etiology, treatment approaches, outcomes, and complications when thrombolytic therapy is used for distal arm and hand ischemia.
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