Article

The possible link between the elevated serum levels of neurokinin A and anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies in children with autism

Autism Research and Treatment Center, AL-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Journal of Neuroinflammation (Impact Factor: 5.41). 12/2011; 8(1):180. DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-180
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Neurogenic inflammation is orchestrated by a large number of neuropeptides. Tachykinins (substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B) are pro-inflammatory neuropeptides that may play an important role in some autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases. Autoimmunity may have a role in the pathogenesis of autism in some patients. We are the first to measure serum neurokinin A levels in autistic children. The relationship between serum levels of neurokinin A and anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies was also studied.
Serum neurokinin A and anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies were measured in 70 autistic children in comparison to 48 healthy-matched children.
Autistic children had significantly higher serum neurokinin A levels than healthy controls (P < 0.001). Children with severe autism had significantly higher serum neurokinin A levels than patients with mild to moderate autism (P < 0.001). Increased serum levels of neurokinin A and anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies were found in 57.1% and 44.3%, respectively of autistic children. There was significant positive correlations between serum levels of neurokinin A and anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies (P = 0.004).
Serum neurokinin A levels were elevated in some autistic children and they were significantly correlated to the severity of autism and to serum levels of anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies. However, this is an initial report that warrants further research to determine the pathogenic role of neurokinin A and its possible link to autoimmunity in autism. The therapeutic role of tachykinin receptor antagonists, a potential new class of anti-inflammatory medications, should also be studied in autism.

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Available from: Laila Y Al-Ayadhi, Feb 26, 2014
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    • "Intriguingly, many patients with ASD have allergic symptoms (Kempuraj et al. 2010). In one study, for example, serum neurokinin A levels were significantly correlated with serum levels of anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies in a group of ASD children (Mostafa and Al-Ayadhi 2011). In a more recent study, BHg levels were significantly associated with the production of serum anti-myelin basic protein autoantibodies in another group of children with ASD (Mostafa and AlAyadhi 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: Tachykinins (substance P, neurokinin A, and neurokinin B) are pro-inflammatory neuropeptides that may play an important role in some autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxicant, and potentially one of the main environmental triggers for ASD as it induces neuroinflammation with a subsequent release of neuropeptides. This is the first study to explore the potentially causal relationship between levels of serum neurokinin A and blood mercury (BHg) in children with ASD. Levels of serum neurokinin A and BHg were measured in 84 children with ASD, aged between 3 and 10 years, and 84 healthy-matched children. There was a positive linear relationship between the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and both serum neurokinin A and BHg. ASD children had significantly higher levels of serum neurokinin A than healthy controls (P < 0.001). Increased levels of serum neurokinin A and BHg were respectively found in 54.8 % and 42.9 % of the two groups. There was significant and positive linear relationship between levels of serum neurokinin A and BHg in children with moderate and severe ASD, but not in healthy control children. It was found that 78.3 % of the ASD patients with increased serum levels of neurokinin A had elevated BHg levels (P < 0.001). Neuroinflammation, with increased levels of neurokinin A, is seen in some children with ASD, and may be caused by elevated BHg levels. Further research is recommended to determine the pathogenic role of increased levels of serum neurokinin A and BHg in ASD. The therapeutic role of tachykinin receptor antagonists, a potential new class of anti-inflammatory medications, and Hg chelators, should also be studied in ASD.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Metabolic Brain Disease
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    • "Autoantibodies are the hallmark of autoimmune diseases. We recently reported increased serum levels of antiribosomal P protein antibodies in 44.3% of another group of 70 autistic children between ages 6 and 11 years [56]. This was the only study that in which the serum levels of these antibodies in autism were investigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: S100B is a calcium-binding protein that is produced primarily by astrocytes. Increased serum S100B protein levels reflect neurological damage. Autoimmunity may have a role in the pathogenesis of autism in some patients. Autoantibodies may cross the blood-brain barrier and combine with brain tissue antigens, forming immune complexes and resulting in neurological damage. We are the first to investigate the relationship between serum levels of S100B protein, a marker of neuronal damage, and antiribosomal P protein antibodies in autistic children. Serum S100B protein and antiribosomal P antibodies were measured in 64 autistic children in comparison to 46 matched healthy children. Autistic children had significantly higher serum S100B protein levels than healthy controls (P < 0.001). Children with severe autism had significantly higher serum S100B protein than patients with mild to moderate autism (P = 0.01). Increased serum levels of antiribosomal P antibodies were found in 40.6% of autistic children. There were no significant correlations between serum levels of S100B protein and antiribosomal P antibodies (P = 0.29). S100B protein levels were elevated in autistic children and significantly correlated to autistic severity. This may indicate the presence of an underlying neuropathological condition in autistic patients. Antiribosomal P antibodies may not be a possible contributing factor to the elevated serum levels of S100B protein in some autistic children. However, further research is warranted to investigate the possible link between serum S100B protein levels and other autoantibodies, which are possible indicators of autoimmunity to central nervous system in autism.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Neuroinflammation

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