Type-Specific Human Papillomavirus Infections Among Young Heterosexual Male and Female STI Clinic Attendees

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Center for Infectious Disease Control, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
Sexually transmitted diseases (Impact Factor: 2.84). 01/2012; 39(1):72-8. DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318235b3b0
Source: PubMed


Baseline genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence rates and associated risk factors per gender enable future assessment of the impact of vaccination on HPV dynamics.
Before the start of national HPV vaccination for girls, data were collected cross-sectionally in nationwide Dutch sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinics among heterosexual males (n = 430) and females (n = 1136) aged 16 to 24 years. Self-collected vaginal or penile swabs were analyzed by a sensitive polymerase chain reaction (SPF10) and genotyped with line probe assay. Logistic regression was applied to estimate determinants of HPV prevalent infections.
HPV prevalence was 54% among males and 72% among females. High-risk (HR) HPV was present in males and females, 40% and 58%, respectively. Independent risk factors for HR-HPV infection were female gender, number of lifetime sex partners and a history of chlamydia or gonorrhea. In addition, not having a casual partner and consistent condom use were protective factors in women, but not in men. For low-risk (LR) HPV, the odds were smaller. Multiple HR-HPV and sexual risk behavior showed a stronger association compared with a single HR-HPV infection.
Prevalence of HR-HPV is high in both genders. Infection with multiple HR-HPV types was more associated with high-risk sexual behavior than infection with LR-HPV types or a single HR-HPV type.

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes genital warts, penile cancer and cervical cancer. Africa has one of the highest rates of penile and cervical cancers, but there are little data on high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) prevalence in heterosexual men. Knowledge of HR-HPV prevalence, risk factors and genotype distribution among heterosexual men is important to establish risk-reduction prevention strategies. Methods 1578 uncircumcised men aged 15–49 years who enrolled in male circumcision trials in Rakai, Uganda, were evaluated for HR-HPV from swabs of the coronal sulcus/glans using Roche HPV Linear Array. Adjusted prevalence risk ratios (adjPRRs) were estimated using modified Poisson multivariable regression. Results HPV prevalence (either high risk or low risk) was 90.7% (382/421) among HIV-positive men and 60.9% (596/978) among HIV-negative men (PRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.58). HIV-positive men had a significantly higher risk of infection with three or more HR-HPV genotypes (PRR=5.76, 95% CI 4.27 to 7.79). Among HIV-positive men, high-risk sexual behaviours were not associated with increased HR-HPV prevalence. Among HIV-negative men, HR-HPV prevalence was associated with self-reported genital warts (adjPRR 1.57, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.31). Among all men (both HIV negative and HIV positive), HR-HPV prevalence was associated with more than 10 lifetime sexual partners (adjPRR 1.30, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.66), consistent condom use (adjPRR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.60) and HIV infection (adjPRR 1.80, 95% CI 1.60 to 2.02). HR-HPV prevalence was lower among men who reported no sexual partners during the past year (adjPRR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.94). Conclusion The burden of HR-HPV infection is high among heterosexual men in sub-Saharan Africa and most pronounced among the HIV-infected individuals.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Sexually transmitted infections
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