Composition and Abundance of Stink Bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Corn
USDA-DARS, Crop Protection and Management Research Laboratory, Tifton, GA 31793, USA.Environmental Entomology (Impact Factor: 1.3). 12/2010; 39(6):1765-74. DOI: 10.1603/EN09281
The species composition and abundance of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in corn, Zea mays L., was determined in this on-farm study in Georgia. Seven species of phytophagous stink bugs were found on corn with the predominant species being Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus servus (Say). All developmental stages of these two pests were found, indicating they were developing on the corn crop. The remaining five species, Oebalus pugnax pugnax (F.), Euschistus quadrator (Rolston), Euschistus tristigmus (Say), Euschistus ictericus (L.), and Acrosternum hilare (Say), were found in relatively low numbers. Adult N. viridula were parasitized by the tachinid parasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (F.). There was a pronounced edge effect in distribution of stink bugs in corn. Population dynamics of N. viridula and E. servus were different on early and late-planted corn. Oviposition by females of both stink bug species occurred in mid-to-late-May and again mid-to-late-June in corn, regardless of planting date. In early planted fields, if stink bug females oviposited on corn in mid-July, the resulting nymphs did not survive to the adult stage in corn because ears were close to physiological maturity and leaves were senescing. Density of stink bug adults in early planted corn was relatively low throughout the growing season. In late-planted corn, females of both stink bug species consistently laid eggs in mid-to-late-July on corn with developing ears. This habitat favored continued nymph development, and the resulting adult population reached high levels. These results indicate that corn management practices play a key role in the ecology of stink bugs in corn agroecosystems and provide information for designing management strategies to suppress stink bugs in farmscapes with corn.
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- "The distribution of stink bugs in a field can be strongly influenced by a distinct edge effect whereby abundance is highest at the immediate edge of a given habitat type and tapers off quickly from the edge. This edge-mediated abundance is reported in various cropping systems for many stink bug species in the United States, including H. halys (Toscano and Stern 1976; Tillman et al. 2009; Pease and Zalom 2010; Reay-Jones 2010; Reeves et al. 2010; Tillman 2010, 2011; CABI 2014; Venugopal et al. 2014). As H. halys move both within and among crops throughout the season (Leskey et al. 2012a, CABI 2014, Rice et al. 2014), assessments of the infestation patterns of H. halys populations invading tree nurseries are needed. "
ABSTRACT: The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), has caused severe economic losses in the United States and is also a major nuisance pest invading homes. In diverse woody plant nurseries, favored host plants may be attacked at different times of the season and in different locations in the field. Knowledge of factors influencing H. halys abundance and simple methods to predict where H. halys are found and cause damage are needed to develop effective management strategies. In this study, we examined H. halys abundance on plants in tree nurseries as a function of distance from field edges (edge and core samples) and documented the abundance in tree nurseries adjoining different habitat types (corn, soybean, residential areas, and production sod). We conducted timed counts for H. halys on 2,016 individual trees belonging to 146 unique woody plant cultivars at two commercial tree nurseries in Maryland. Across three years of sampling, we found that H. halys nymphs and adults were more abundant at field edges (0-5 m from edges) than in the core of fields (15-20 m from edges). Proximity of soybean fields was associated with high nymph and adult abundance. Results indicate that monitoring efforts and intervention tactics for this invasive pest could be restricted to field edges, especially those close to soybean fields. We show clearly that spatial factors, especially distance from edge, strongly influence H. halys abundance in nurseries. This information may greatly simplify the development of any future management strategies. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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- "Because stink bug populations have been increasing in maize production in the southeastern United States in recent years (Ni et al., 2010), corn producers frequently ask if stink bug feeding on corn ears contributes to smut infection (Buntin, personal communication). Two predominant stink bug species commonly found in southeastern U.S. corn fields are Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), brown stink bug, and Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), southern green stink bug (Tillman, 2010). These piercing–sucking insect pests prefer to feed on developing corn ears around the flowering time of maize plants (Ni et al., 2010). "
ABSTRACT: Phytopathogen infections are frequently influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors in a crop field. The effect of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), feeding and planting date and sampling time on common smut (Ustilago maydis) infection percentage of maize plants was examined in 2005 and 2006, and 2010 and 2011, respectively. Brown stink bug adult feeding on maize hybrid ‘DKC6971’ at flowering in 2005 and 2006 did not influence smut infection percentage when examined using three treatments (i.e., 0 adult, 5 adults, and 5 adults mixed with the smut spores). The smut infection percentages were < 3% (n = 12) in the three treatments. The smut infection percentage among the four weekly samplings was the same, so was natural aflatoxin contamination at harvest among the treatments. The second experiment showed that planting date did not affect the smut infection percentage in either 2010 or 2011. But, the smut infection percentage from the post-flowering sampling was greater than pre-flowering sampling in both years. The smut infection percentage varied among the germplasm lines in 2010, but not in 2011. This study demonstrated that brown stink bug feeding at flowering had no effect on smut infection in maize, and the best time for smut evaluation would be after flowering. The temperature and precipitation might have also influenced the percentage of smut infected maize plants during the four years when the experiments were conducted. The similarity between kernel-colonizing U. maydis and Aspergillus flavus infections and genotype × environment interaction were also discussed.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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- "Manipulation of planting dates is an effective strategy to mitigate damaging populations of insect pests in other systems. For example, planting date affected abundance of stink bugs in early and late planted corn with early planted corn having signiÞcantly fewer southern green and brown stink bugs (Tillman 2010). Furthermore, uniform delayed planting was recommended in the rolling plains of Texas to manage boll weevil in cotton based on the beetleÕs diapause and overwintering survival (Slosser 1978). "
ABSTRACT: Phytophagous stink bugs are economically important pests of annual and perennial crops in the southeastern United States. Because of insecticide resistance and risk of secondary pest outbreaks, there is interest in identifying cultural practices that could lead to reduced insecticide applications. The objective of this project was to assess the importance of cotton planting date on stink bug damage to cotton. Unsprayed cotton plots with biweekly planting dates were established at three locations in southern Georgia in each of two crop years. During the bloom cycle, stink bug-induced boll injury was estimated weekly in each plot. Plots were subsequently defoliated, mechanically harvested, and ginned to assess differences in fiber yield and quality attributable to stink bug injury. Results show that the rate of boll damage generally increased more rapidly through the bloom cycle for planting dates in June compared with May. Similarly, estimates of boll damage from June-planted cotton more frequently exceeded the stink bug treatment threshold compared with May-planted cotton. In 2011, mean lint yield and economic returns from May planting dates were significantly greater than June planting dates. In 2012, lint yield and economic returns were greater in plots established in early May compared with later planting dates. Estimates of HVI color + b, a measure of fiber yellowness, were lower in early May-planted cotton compared with June planting. These data show that growers need to be aware of increased stink bug damage potential when planting late.