ArticlePDF Available

Electromagnetic Signals from Bacterial DNA

Authors:
Article

Electromagnetic Signals from Bacterial DNA

Abstract

Chemical reactions can be induced at a distance due to the propagation of electromagnetic signals during intermediate chemical stages. Although is is well known at optical frequencies, e.g. photosynthetic reactions, electromagnetic signals hold true for muck lower frequencies. In E. coli bacteria such electromagnetic signals can be generated by electric transitions between energy levels describing electrons moving around DNA loops. The electromagnetic signals between different bacteria within a community is a "wireless" version of intercellular communication found in bacterial communities connected by "nanowires". The wireless broadcasts can in principle be of both the AM and FM variety due to the magnetic flux periodicity in electron energy spectra in bacterial DNA orbital motions.
arXiv:1104.3113v1 [physics.bio-ph] 15 Apr 2011
Electromagnetic Signals from Bacterial DNA
A. Widom and J. Swain
Physics Department, Northeastern University, Boston MA USA
Y. N. Srivastava
Physics Department & INFN, University of Perugia, Perugia Italy
S. Sivasubramanian
Nanoscale Technology and High Rate Manufacturing Research Center
Northeastern University, Boston MA USA
Chemical reactions can be induced at a distance due to the propagation of electromagnetic sig-
nals during intermediate chemical stages. Although is is well known at optical frequencies, e.g.
photosynthetic reactions, electromagnetic signals hold true for muck lower frequencies. In E. coli
bacteria such electromagnetic signals can be generated by electric transitions between energy levels
describing electrons moving around DNA loops. The electromagnetic signals between different bac-
teria within a community is a “wireless” version of intercellular communication found in bacterial
communities connected by “nanowires”. The wireless broadcasts can in principle be of both the AM
and FM variety due to the magnetic flux periodicity in electron energy spectra in bacterial DNA
orbital motions.
PACS numbers: 82.39.Pj and 82.35.Rs
I. INTRODUCTION
Biochemistry is most often described in terms of
the short ranged molecular rearrangement interactions.
However, it is clear that photo-induced biochemical re-
actions also exist. Photosynthesis constitutes an example
of crucial biological importance. The photons which in-
duce these chemical reactions can come from very distant
sources (e.g. the sun). Chemical reactions can thereby be
induced at at a distance due to the propagation of elec-
tromagnetic signals during intermediate reaction stages.
It appears reasonable to investigate the biochemical pos-
sibilities of electromagnetic signals of frequencies slow on
the scale of light signals. Evidence for such reactions has
been previously reported[1] wherein the time dependence
of electromagnetic signals were recorded to later be em-
ployed at will.
In two recent and important experiments[2, 3], it was
shown that bacterial DNA macromolecules radiate elec-
tromagnetic signals which were monitored employing the
voltage across an inductive pickup coil. The bacterial
DNA within water was located in a test tube. The pickup
coil was constructed with wires wrapped around the tube.
Our purpose is to theoretically discuss the biophysi-
cal sources of these electromagnetic signals. The sources
are argued to be due to electronic transitions between en-
ergy levels of electrons moving around the bacterial DNA
loops.
One may deduce the spectral properties of the elec-
tromagnetic signals via electromagnetic electromagnetic
noise; i.e. by employing the fluctuation dissipation
theorem[4]
SV(ω) = kBTnoise
πeZ(ω+i0+),(1)
wherein Tnoise is the coil noise temperature and Z(ζ) is
the coil impedance as a function of complex frequency
ζ=ω+. Eq.(1) is essential for the pickup coil method
of detecting electromagnetic signals.
A. Low Frequency Noise
In the regime of very low frequency, say in the range
1 Hz <(ω/2π)<20 Hz, spectral noise can appear from
the electronic magnetic moment precession due to small
magnetic fields. Even if the shielding of magnetic fields
due to external sources were perfect, the thermal fluctu-
ations of coil currents would still give rise to magnetic
fields yielding low frequency noise signals. The value
thermal magnetic fields BTfrom thermal fluctuations is
estimated in Sec.II.
B. High Frequency Noise
In the regime of higher frequencies, say in the interval
0.2 KHz <(ω/2π)<5 KHz, there exists sharp peaks in
the noise spectral function SV(ω). It is worthy of note
that the bacterial DNA molecule is in the shape of a loop.
In what follows in Sec.III, we will model the coil noise
spectra to the motion of nearly free electrons moving in
a spatial loop of length Lwhich includes the helix DNA
coils. The elementary Scr¨odinger equation will be solved
in Sec.III.
Fitting de Broglie electron waves on the loop, one finds
the usual free electron quantum energy levels
En=2π2¯h2
mL2n2, n = 0,±1,±2,···.(2)
2
The associated Bohr transition frequencies
ωn=En+1 En
¯h= (2n+ 1)̟,
̟=2π2¯h
mL2,(3)
should then appear as broadcast electromagnetic signals
at 0.5 KHz, 1.0 KHz and 1.5 KHz in E. coli bacteria.
This expectation is experimentally valid[2, 3].
C. Magnetic Moments
The orbital magnetic moment of an electron moving
around a baterial DNA loop may be understood as fol-
lows: (i) The mean velocity of electrons moving about the
loop determines the electronic mean current according to
In=evn
L=2πe¯hn
mL2, n = 0,±1,±2,···.(4)
(ii) The magnetic moment mof a circulating current loop
around a vector area Σis given by m=IΣ/c; i.e. the
mean magnetic moment is
mn=InΣ
c=¯he
2mc4πΣ
L2n, n = 0,±1,±2,···.
(5)
If a magnetic field Bis applied to the biological sample,
then a magnetic flux
Φ = B·Σ(6)
will thread through the bacterial DNA loop. The orbital
electronic energy levels will then exhibit a flux periodic-
ity; i.e. with flux quantum period
Φ0=2π¯hc
|e|4.13567 ×107Gauss cm2,
Φ041.3567 Gauss micron2.(7)
The periodicity of the energy levels is thereby
En(Φ + Φ0) = En(Φ).(8)
Note that the magnetic flux quantum in Eq.(7) is twice
the value found for superconducting loops wherein the
charge value is the electron pairing value q= 2e.
As a consequence of Eq.(8). magnetic field noise must
be very small to observe the KHz signals. In general,
the magnetic flux threading the DNA loop, Φ = B·Σ,
depends on how the vector area Σis oriented with respect
to the magnetic field B. The sharp spectral lines would
thereby be considerably broadened. The broadening is
discussed in Sec.IV.
D. Bacterial Communication
There has been considerable interest in bacterial com-
munities wherein a bacterium is connected to neighbor-
ing bacteria by means of narrow nanowires[5–7]. It is
believed that the purpose of the nanowires is to allow for
intercellular electronic communications. More advanced
on the evolutionary scale are the more modern bacterial
communities which are wireless. The electromagnetic sig-
nals sent from a bacterium to neighboring bacteria can be
due to relatively low frequency electron level transitions
within DNA.
II. MAGNETIC MOMENT PRECESSION
If a compact object with magnetic moment mis sub-
ject to a magnetic field B, then a precession occurs,
dm
dt =γm×B,(9)
at a rotational angular velocity
2πf=γB,(10)
wherein γis the gyromagnetic ratio. The gyromagnetic
ratio associated with electronic charged current flows is
given by
γ=e
2mc (8.7941 ×106)
Gauss sec .(11)
Within a cylindrical water sample of volume Vwithin an
inductive pickup coil, one may employ the magnetic field
equipartition theorem[4] in the form
VB2
8π=kBT
2,
BT=r4πkBT
V.(12)
From Eqs.(10) and (12), one obtains a magnetic fre-
quency, 2πfT=|γ|BT, which serves as a lower bound
for the magnetic noise frequency within the coil; Numer-
ically,
fT1.01 Hz scm3
VT
300 oK(orbital),
fspin
T2.02 Hz scm3
VT
300 oK(spin),(13)
wherein the electron spin gyromagnetic ratio involves the
factor g2. The above are consistent with the exper-
imental value[2, 3] of 7 Hz for diluted bacterial DNA
samples in water. The magnetic field value in Eq.(12)
is internal to the system and will hold true if external
magnetic fields are sufficiently well screened.
3
III. ELECTRONS AND DNA LOOPS
Consider an electron which can move around a bac-
terial DNA loop including the windings of helices and
along the ordered water layers within which the DNA is
stored. A reasonable Hamiltonian model model for the
electronic energy levels may then be written as
V(s+L) = V(s) and A(s+L) = A(s),
H=1
2mi¯hd
ds e
cA(s)2
+V(s),(14)
wherein allowed electron wave functions have a periodic-
ity around the DNA loop
ψ(s+L) = ψ(s).(15)
The vector potential tangent to the closed loop may be
written as the periodic function
A(s) = Φ
L+
X
n=1
Ancos 2πns
L+θn(16)
In virtue of the guage transformation
χ(s) =
X
n=1 LAn
2πn sin 2πns
L+θn,
A(s)A(s) + (s)
ds ,
ψ(s)e(ieχ(s)/¯hc)ψ(s),(17)
The Hamiltonian in Eq.(14) may be written with bound-
ary conditions as
H=1
2mi¯hd
ds eΦ
cL 2
+V(s),
V(s+L) = V(s),
ψ(s+L) = ψ(s).(18)
For harmless E. Coli K-12 bacteria the loop length is
4,639,221 bp or in absolute length units
˜
L= 0.157733514 cm.(19)
If the mobile electron moving around the DNA in the
ordered water layer, skips rungs around the helices, then
the electron path around the DNA would be considerable
shorter than in in Eq.(19) We find satisfactory agreement
between the electron spectra and the observed pickup coil
noise with the shorter length scale
L102cm,(20)
yielding for zero magnetic flux and for uniform potential
En=2π2¯h2
mL2n2, n = 0,±1,±2,±3,···.(21)
In order to resolve the energy spectra, the magnetic field
must be carefully screened.
IV. FLUX PERIODICITY
For the general spectral model in Eq.(18), the energy
levels give rise to a magnetic flux periodicity as in Eq.(8).
Different bacteria will exhibit different spectra depending
on the orientation of the DNA loop vector area Σwith
respect to the magnetic field B. Flux periodicity exists
in both the energy and the DNA loop current,
I(Φ) = cdE(Φ)
dΦ,
E(Φ + Φ0) = E(Φ),
I(Φ + Φ0) = I(Φ).(22)
In addition, Faraday’s law for the voltage around the
DNA loop is given by
V=1
c
dΦ
dt .(23)
One thereby finds that a voltage uniform in time yield a
current which alternates with time at a frequency
ωV=eV
¯h.(24)
The above implies modulated sidebands with the elec-
tronic spectral frequencies determined by the Faraday
law voltage around the DNA loop. The resonance
condition[8] is the voltage to frequency conversion
eV =n¯hω, n = 0,±1,±2,±3···.(25)
The wireless communications may thereby be transmit-
ted for both AM and FM broadcast systems.
V. CONCLUSIONS
Although biochemical reactions are often described in
terms of molecular contacts, electromagnetic signals can
often be employed to allow chemical reaction control at a
distance. The photosynthetic reactions are a classic case
of chemical reaction control via electromagnetic signal
propagation. T frequencies much less that optical there
is a clear electromagnetic signal propagation in E. coli
bacterial communities. We have probed a model wherein
such signals are due to quantum electrnic transitions of
electrons in orbital motion about DNA loops.
The electromagnetic signals between different bacte-
ria within a community is a “wireless” version of inter-
cellular communication found in bacterial communities
connected by “nanowires”. The wireless broadcasts can
in principle be of both the AM and FM variety due to
the magnetic flux periodicity in electron energy spectra
in bacterial DNA orbital motions. AM signals can arise
from the Bohr transition frequencies between different
electronic energy orbitals about the DNA loops. FM
modulation signals can arise from the Faraday law volt-
age controlled signal modulation frequency in Eq.(24).
There is considerable work required to extract the bioin-
formation contained in these electromagnetic signals.
4
[1] J. Benveniste, P. Jurgens, J. A¨ıssa, Faseb Journal 10 A,
1479 (1996).
[2] L. Montagnier, J. A¨ıssa, S. Ferris, J-L. Montagnier and C.
Lavallee, Interdiscip. Sci. Comput. Life Sci. 1, 81 (2009).
[3] L. Montagnier, J. A¨ıssa, C. Lavallee, M. Mbamy, J. Varon
and H. Chenal, Interdiscip. Sci. Comput. Life Sci. 1, 245
(2009).
[4] L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshitz, “Statistical Physics”, Part
I, 3rd Edition, Chapter XII, Pergamon Press, Oxford
(1980).
[5] D. Ntarlagiannis, E.A. Atekwana, 3. Eric, A. Hill, and
Yuri Gorby, GeoPhys. Res. Lett. 34, L17305 (2007).
[6] M.Y. El-Naggar, Y.A. Gorby, W. Xia and K.H. Nealson,
Biophys. J. : Biophys. Letts. L10 (2008).
[7] M.Y. El-Naggar, G. Wangerb, K.M. Leungc, T.D. Yuzvin-
skya, G. Southame, J. Yangc, W.M. Laud, K.H. Nealsonb
and Y.A. Gorbyb PNAS 107, 18127 (2010).
[8] E. Del Guidice, S. Doglia, M. Milani, C.W. Smoth and G.
Vitiello, Physica Scripta 40, 786 (1989).
... Biocircuitry involves arranging synthesized biology into configurations that allow for penetration into traditionally inorganic spheres of computing, communication, electromagnetic spectrum expression, etc. Currently there is increased interest in biological 'electronics * ' including biological voltage production and transmission (e.g., human heart, electric eel, modified E. coli (Pearlman 2016)) and biological capabilities in the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g. bacteria generating radio waves (Widom et al. 2011), augmentation with nanoparticles to emit x-rays (Krishnamurthy et al. 2015)). The ability to release and react to stimuli enable engineered biologic systems to act as logic gates, to transform and signal the transformation of protein configurations, and to reproduce these engineered configurations and capabilities. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The International Biological and Chemical Threat Reduction Program at Sandia National Laboratories is developing a 15-year technology road map in support the United States Government efforts to reduce international chemical and biological dangers. In 2017, the program leadership chartered an analysis team to explore dangers in the future international chemical and biological landscape through engagements with national security experts within and beyond Sandia to gain a multidisciplinary perspective on the future. This report offers a high level landscape of future chemical and biological dangers based upon analysis of those engagements and provides support for further technology road map development.
... Electromagnetic signaling can take place at the speed of light and is expected to be relatively faster. Latest studies show some bacterial DNA sequences induce electromagnetic waves (~kHz) at high aqueous dilutions [45], [46]. ...
Thesis
This thesis presents novel solutions to certain emerging problems related to electrically small radiating systems and antennas for effectively increasing the radiation efficiency and/or bandwidth of physically small antennas radiating at low frequencies. The thesis introduces the concept of fragmented antennas for the first time. It also provides a completely novel solution for implementation of mechanical antennas with frequency multiplication and phase modulation capabilities for the first time. These concepts are borrowed to develop mechano-electromagnetic radio concept for biological cells to explain how communication can occur in community of cells. The proposed mechanical antenna provides unique capabilities for communication at very-low frequency band (3-30 kHz) and lowers. In mechanical antennas, the radiation is mainly induced through accelerating (rotating) electric charges or permanent magnets by means of fast electric motors. This work presents a novel phase modulation and frequency multiplication scheme for radiation at frequencies up to seven time rotation frequency of their mechanical motor and at the same time provides phase modulation capability. This is done by incorporating two pairs of orthogonal bow-tie shape high-μ magnetic material plates through which super magnetic bar is rotated by a fast electric motor. By moving the angular position of the magnetic plates, it is shown that the phase and amplitude of the EM signal can be modulated. This thesis also reports on the feasibility of formation of an electrically large antenna at low frequencies using a number of miniaturized antennas through electromagnetic coupling for achieving high bandwidth. The proposed fragmented antenna system is intended for a linear flight formation of small UAVs carrying individual antennas. Inductively end-loaded folded dipole antennas are used as the individual antenna that can provide radiation at the desired frequency over a narrow bandwidth. The overall dimensions and the total mass of the individual elements are 12×10×10cm (0.096λ_0× 0.08λ_0× 0.08λ_0 at 240MHz) and 18g, respectively. Each miniaturized antenna can only provide 2.4 MHz (~1%) bandwidth and 25 Ω input impedance. It is shown that a cluster of three of such elements operating in the vicinity of each other, the center element can provide 18.4 MHz bandwidth (an improvement of 770%) through inductive coupling while the other two elements are loaded with optimal reactive elements. The fundamentals of operation of embedded radios within cellular structures and biofilms is based on mechanical antennas. Certain bacterial cells within their biofilms are equipped with elastic helical fibers called amyloid fibrils which pose permanent electric dipole. We propose that the cells transmit electromagnetic (EM) signal to their surrounding environment through mechanical vibration of these fibrils. Different vibrational modes associated with fibrils including cantilever beam mode, longitudinal spring vibrational mode, and transverse spring modes are investigated indicating potential EM signaling within kHz-MHz, GHz, and sub-THz ranges, respectively. A novel and theoretical Multiphysics model based on coupled system of electrical and mechanical structures is also proposed to study the impact of this signaling on crowd of fibrils in a biofilm sample. Next, to demonstrate the advantage of EM-based communication, using communication channel theory, we have compared performance of EM signaling with its biochemical counterpart (quorum sensing) and shown that EM signaling provides much higher data rate, 5 to 7 orders of magnitude, and over much longer ranges. Thus, it could be potentially more efficient and a preferred method for communication among cells.
... Recent reports have shown that extracellular electron transport may occur by means of narrow nanowires which serve as a microbial strategy to communicate to neighboring bacteria (El-Naggar et al., 2010;Nielsen et al., 2010). However, it has also been suggested that a wireless communication may occur in which electromagnetic signals are sent from a bacterium to neighboring bacteria in order to adapt to external environmental cues (Widom et al., 2011). ...
Article
The appearance of endogenous electromagnetic fields in biological systems is a widely debated issue in modern science. The electrophysiological fields have very tiny intensities and it can be inferred that they are rapidly decreasing with the distance from the generating structure, vanishing at very short distances. This makes very hard their detection using standard experimental methods. However, the existence of fast-moving charged particles in the macromolecules inside both intracellular and extracellular fluids may envisage the generation of localized electric currents as well as the presence of closed loops, which implies the existence of magnetic fields. Moreover, the whole set of oscillatory frequencies of various substances, enzymes, cell membranes, nucleic acids, bioelectrical phenomena generated by the electrical rhythm of coherent groups of cells, cell-to-cell communication among population of host bacteria, forms the increasingly complex hierarchies of electromagnetic signals of different frequencies which cover the living being and represent a fundamental information network controlling the cell metabolism. From this approach emerges the concept of electromagnetic homeostasis: that is, the capability of the human body to maintain the balance of highly complex electromagnetic interactions within, in spite of the external electromagnetic noisy environment. This concept may have an important impact on the actual definitions of heal and disease.
... En mesurant les émissions fréquentielles de type ELF chez l'homme, Lipkova note l'amplification du pic spectral à la fréquence de 7,1 Hz, que l'auteur rapproche de la fréquence de Schuman de résonance des ondes stationnaires de l'ionosphère. Il y a un deuxième pic de fréquence distinct sur la fréquence de 6,7 Hz, puis des composantes harmoniques moins distinctives sur les fréquences de 2 Hz, 3 Hz Widom [14] par exemple, estime que l'ADN bactérien produit des signaux radioélectriques, car il forme souvent une boucle circulaire dans laquelle le déplacement d'électrons libres produit différents niveaux d'énergie. Or, si on les modélise mathématiquement, leurs fréquences de transition afficheraient des signaux de radiodiffusion de 0,5, 1 et 1,5 kHertz. ...
Article
This paper presents a model that describes a possible mechanism for electromagnetic (EM) signal transmission and reception by bacterial cells within their biofilm communities. Bacterial cells in biofilms are embedded into a complex extracellular matrix containing, among other components, charged helical nanofibrils from amyloid-forming peptides. Based on the current knowledge about the nanoscale structure and dynamics of the amyloids, we explore a hypothetical model that the mechanical vibration of these nanofibrils allows the cells to transmit EM signals to their neighboring cells and the surrounding environment. For the reception, the induced electric field can either exert force on the charges of adjacent nanofibrils associated with the neighboring cells or affect the placement/conformation of a certain charged messenger protein within the cell. The proposed model is based on a coupled system of electrical and mechanical nanoscale structures, which predicts signal transmission and reception within kHz-GHz frequency ranges. Different mechanisms for generating EM signals at various frequency bands related to the structure of the cell and their biofilm constituents are discussed.
Article
A tanulmány az Országos Kriminológiai Intézetben (OKRI) 2020 szeptemberében létrehozott COVID-munkacsoport kutatásainak eddigi eredményeit mutatja be. Az elvégzett desk research eredménye egy kriminológiai szempontú helyzetfelmérés, ennek megállapításait adják közre az alábbiakban. A tanulmány egyúttal tervezetként is szolgál a 2021-re tervezett átfogó kutatásokhoz. Az eredmények minden kétséget kizáróan rámutatnak, hogy a COVID-járvány strukturális változásokat hozott a társadalomban. Új jelenségek mutatkoztak a bűnözés területén is globálisan és Magyarországon egyaránt. Bár Magyarországon, a nyugateurópai országokkal ellentétben nem voltak erőszakos tiltakozó mozgalmak, és az erőszakos cselekmények összes száma a járvány idején csökkenni látszott, a gyűlölet új, a bűncselekményi szintet el nem érő, de mindenképpen fenyegető formái jelentek meg. Az állampolgárok több fegyvert vásároltak, a családon belüli erőszakos cselekmények terjedőben vannak. A járvány szükségessé tette, hogy az igazgatási és gazdasági ügyintézés, valamint a személyes kommunikáció nagyrészt az online térbe kerüljön át. Ez azonban szélesebbre tárta a kaput a kiberbűnözés, például az online térben tevékenykedő csalók és hamisítók előtt, miközben a csalás néhány régi formája az offline térben is új előre kapott. Az állampolgárok egészségének védelme és az álhírek terjesztésének megakadályozása érdekében a magyar kormány is szükségesnek tartotta speciális jogi szabályok bevezetését. A tanulmány röviden kitér a jogi változások bemutatására is. A járvány eddigi időszakának vizsgálata lehetővé tette egyes releváns jelenségek feltárását, de megbízhatóan értelmezhető statisztikai adatok csak a későbbiekben állnak majd rendelkezésre. Ezek elemzése a jövőbeli kutatás feladata lesz.
Article
This article reports on a wideband near-zone radiative system operating from 1 to 50 GHz for examining the possibility of electromagnetic emission from a community of bacteria in a petri dish or any other distributed sources confined in a small focusing area. The system includes a dual-polarized signal collector, a Dicke switch, broadband low-noise amplifiers (LNAs), and a precision spectrum analyzer. The signal collector is composed of a quadruple-ridged horn-type structure of dimensions λ <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">L</sub> × λ <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">L</sub> × 1.6 λ <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">L</sub> (where λ <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">L</sub> is the wavelength at the lowest frequency) having two orthogonal probes. The provision of a dielectric cone along the horn central axis allows for collimating the waves in the focusing area over the entire bandwidth. Therefore, the signal collector acts as a field concentrator to provide a uniform field distribution across the focusing area (source location). The entire structure is designed to be EM-shielded and free from resonance. It can effectively exclude outside interference while maintaining a uniform collection of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Thesis
Les hautes dilutions homéopathiques, dépourvues de molécules actives à partir de la dilution 12 CH, seraient en mesure de conserver une activité biologique. Ceci, incarné par l’hypothèse de Jacques Benveniste (« mémoire de l’eau »), est étayé par les études physiques suggérant qu’une haute dilution serait différente de son solvant de départ. La biologie numérique (développée par Luc Montagnier) étudie l’émission de signaux électromagnétiques par les biomolécules, et leur numérisation. L’eau morphogénique (eau Z.E.), ou quatrième état stable de l’eau serait le support de cette émission. Les molécules d’eau, objets quantiques, interagissent avec le vide quantique par échange de photons. Elles entreraient en cohérence énergétique, cohérence manifestée par une vibration collective à l’unisson, correspondant à un signal électromagnétique de basses fréquences, spécifique de la biomolécule. Ce signal serait à l’origine des variations de mesure observées lors des expérimentations. L’existence du vivant et ses interactions avec l’environnement dépendraient alors de trois paramètres fondamentaux : les biomolécules (émettrices de rayonnements), l’eau (support) et l’électromagnétisme (langage). Cette triade autoriserait une forme de communication cellulaire méconnue, par ce signal basses fréquences, à longue portée. Les expérimentations in vitro sur les hautes dilutions en représenteraient simplement une manifestation, rendue possible par la dynamisation des tubes. La cohérence mécanique générée par la dynamisation, renforcerait la cohérence quantique de l’eau, et donc le maintien du signal. Le principe d’infinitésimalité au regard de la physique quantique, et le principe de similitude, envisagé comme une opposition de phase (signal inversé), définissent ainsi l’homéopathie « quantique ». Cette nouvelle vision de l’homéopathie amènerait-elle un profond changement dans la compréhension du vivant?
Research
Full-text available
NEAR-FIELD REFERENCES E. E. Richards 5/24/2013 T. G. Zimmerman, “Personal Area Networks: Near-field intra-body communications”, IBM Systems Journal, V.35, No 3 + 4, 1996 Thushara D. Abhayapala, Rodney A. Kennedy, “Nearfield broadband array design using a radially invariant model expansion”, Research School of Information Sciences and Engineering, Australian National Univ., Canberra ACT 0200, Australia Giuseppe Abreu, Ryujl Kohno, “Adaptively Sampled Near-field Smart Array Antenna for Indoor Wireless Communications”, IEICE. Trans. Comm., Vol. E84-B, No.7, July 2001 Adolph and Erich Erdmann, “Experiment with Faster than Light Receiving Antenna, Using the Local Radio Station”, The General Science Journal. Adolph and Erich Erdmann, “Faster than Light, the Revolutionary Radio Antenna that
Article
Full-text available
The proposal of coherent electromagnetic processes as the engine for biological dynamics suggests that Josephson effects could be present in living cells. Positive experimental evidence is reported and discussed.
Article
Full-text available
1] The Earth's shallow subsurface results from integrated biological, geochemical, and physical processes. Methods are sought to remotely assess these interactive processes, especially those catalysed by micro-organisms. Using saturated sand columns and the metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, we show that electrically conductive appendages called bacterial nanowires are directly associated with electrical potentials. No significant electrical potentials were detectable in columns inoculated with mutant strains that produced non-conductive appendages. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed a network of nanowires linking cells-cells and cells to mineral surfaces, ''hardwiring'' the entire length of the column. We hypothesize that the nanowires serve as conduits for transfer of electrons from bacteria in the anaerobic part of the column to bacteria at the surface that have access to oxygen, akin to a biogeobattery. These results advance understanding of the mechanisms of electron transport in subsurface environments and of how microorganisms cycle geologic material and share energy.
Article
Full-text available
A novel property of DNA is described: the capacity of some bacterial DNA sequences to induce electromagnetic waves at high aqueous dilutions. It appears to be a resonance phenomenon triggered by the ambient electromagnetic background of very low frequency waves. The genomic DNA of most pathogenic bacteria contains sequences which are able to generate such signals. This opens the way to the development of highly sensitive detection system for chronic bacterial infections in human and animal diseases.
Article
Full-text available
Electromagnetic signals of low frequency have been shown to be durably produced in aqueous dilutions of the Human Imunodeficiency Virus DNA. In vivo, HIV DNA signals are detected only in patients previously treated by antiretroviral therapy and having no detectable viral RNA copies in their blood. We suggest that the treatment of AIDS patients pushes the virus towards a new mode of replication implying only DNA, thus forming a reservoir insensitive to retroviral inhibitors. Implications for new approaches aimed at eradicating HIV infection are discussed.
  • M Y El-Naggar
  • Y A Gorby
  • W Xia
  • K H Nealson
M.Y. El-Naggar, Y.A. Gorby, W. Xia and K.H. Nealson, Biophys. J. : Biophys. Letts. L10 (2008).
  • D Ntarlagiannis
  • E A Atekwana
D. Ntarlagiannis, E.A. Atekwana, 3. Eric, A. Hill, and Yuri Gorby, GeoPhys. Res. Lett. 34, L17305 (2007).
  • D Ntarlagiannis
  • E A Atekwana
  • A Eric
  • Yuri Hill
  • Gorby
D. Ntarlagiannis, E.A. Atekwana, 3. Eric, A. Hill, and Yuri Gorby, GeoPhys. Res. Lett. 34, L17305 (2007).
  • M Y El-Naggar
  • G Wangerb
  • K M Leungc
  • T D Yuzvinskya
  • G Southame
  • J Yangc
  • W M Laud
  • K H Nealsonb
M.Y. El-Naggar, G. Wangerb, K.M. Leungc, T.D. Yuzvinskya, G. Southame, J. Yangc, W.M. Laud, K.H. Nealsonb and Y.A. Gorbyb PNAS 107, 18127 (2010).
  • E Del Guidice
  • S Doglia
  • M Milani
  • C W Smoth
  • G Vitiello
E. Del Guidice, S. Doglia, M. Milani, C.W. Smoth and G. Vitiello, Physica Scripta 40, 786 (1989).