The surgical management and prognosis of renal cell cancer with IVC tumor thrombus: 15-Years of experience using a multi-specialty approach at a single UK referral center

Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
Urologic Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.77). 12/2011; 31(7). DOI: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2011.11.001
Source: PubMed


OBJECTIVES: Surgical management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) invading the inferior vena cava (IVC) remains a technical challenge. However, radical surgery is the only potentially curative treatment. We set out to review our experience of using a multi-specialty approach to these patients over the last 15 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with RCC and IVC invasion underwent surgery at our institution (mean age: 59 years). Tumor thrombus was infrahepatic/levels I and II: n = 24, intrahepatic/level III: N = 14, or suprahepatic/level IV: n = 12. Infra- and intrahepatic caval tumors were resected using an abdominal approach and liver transplant techniques without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB was used only with level IV thrombus. RESULTS: There were no intraoperative deaths. Median operating time was 6 hours and blood loss 3.5 liters (l). Staging was T3b: n = 34, T3c: n = 10 and T4: n = 6. Median time spent in HDU and hospital were 2 and 12.5 days, respectively. Perioperative mortality was 4%. Metastatic disease (P < 0.001) and level IV thrombus (P < 0.05) were significant negative prognostic factors. Forty of the 50 patients did not have metastasis. With mean follow-up of 38 months, the non-metastatic group had 2-year estimated Kaplan-Meier survival of 82.0% falling to 62.4% at 5 years. Conversely, in the metastatic group, estimated 2-year survival was 26.6% falling to 0% by 5 years. CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment of RCC involving the IVC is possible with acceptable morbidity and mortality. Long-term survival can be expected in over 60% of non-metastatic patients at 5 years. These cases benefit from a multidisciplinary surgical approach. Level III thrombus can be successfully managed without CPB.

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Available from: Ased S M Ali
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    ABSTRACT: Background This report details the experience of a multidisciplinary surgical team in the management of stage III and stage IV renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with concomitant inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombus. Methods A retrospective inquiry of our vascular database from 2003 to 2012 identified 55 surgical cases of stage III (n = 40) and stage IV (n = 15) RCC presenting with IVC tumor thrombus. Tumor characteristics and IVC tumor thrombus were evaluated by clinical staging and postoperative pathology staging. Patient demographics and surgical reconstruction are detailed. Cancer-specific outcomes consisted of oncologic surveillance with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. A Clavien-Dindo classification of early (<30 days) complications and mortality was recorded, including a review of secondary surgical interventions. Results According to the Novick classification of IVC tumor thrombus, there were 10 supradiaphragmatic (level IV), 20 intrahepatic (level III), and 25 infrahepatic (level II or I) tumor thrombi. Vena cava reconstruction was completed in 54 patients (98%), with one patient deemed unresectable. Vena cava control required cardiac bypass (n = 10), venovenous bypass (n = 4), or infrahepatic IVC control (n = 40). Reconstruction of the IVC was completed with two prosthetic interposition grafts for one stage IV thrombus and one stage III thrombus; two patch repairs were done for stage III thrombus, and there were 50 primary IVC repairs. All other IVC reconstructions were patent at a mean follow-up of 23 months. A single asymptomatic patient with primary IVC repair had estimated 30% IVC narrowing but no other measurable stenosis as detected by postoperative imaging. Three patients required reoperation (two for surgical site bleeding, one for small bowel fistula). Early surgical complications included Clavien-Dindo grades I (n = 3), II (n = 6), IIIa (n = 2), IIIb (n = 3), and V (n = 2). Regional retroperitoneal or distant recurrent RCC occurred in 26 patients (48%); a single patient demonstrating recurrent IVC tumor thrombus at 8 months required secondary IVC thrombectomy. All patients with tumor invasion of the IVC wall developed recurrent RCC, and no patient survived beyond 5 years. Early mortality was 3.6% (n = 2), with 27 patients (49%) dying within 24 months, resulting in an overall mortality for the cohort of 80% (n = 44) as established on routine regular postoperative surveillance. Conclusions A multidisciplinary approach for the management of advanced RCC and IVC tumor thrombus helps optimize outcomes. Primary IVC repairs are possible in most patients, and IVC patency is good. Recurrent tumor thrombus rates are low; however, RCC tumor recurrence and mortality are high, especially among patients with advanced cancer with IVC wall invasion.
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    ABSTRACT: Venous invasion is a common characteristic of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) manifesting as tumor thrombus with possible extension into the renal vein, and in extensive cases the thrombus can extend from renal vein to the right atrium. Presently, cytoreductive nephrectomy and tumor thrombectomy are the foundation for improving quality of life and survival in the treatment of RCC, therefore there has emerged a role for a vascular specialist to become an integral part of operative planning and therapy.
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    ABSTRACT: The surgical management with laparoscopic technique for renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus (IVTT) remains challenging and technically demanding in urological oncology. We present two patients with level II IVTT that were managed with pure conventional laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy. Two patients were diagnosed with a renal tumor with level II IVTT from December 2011 to January 2012. They both underwent pure conventional laparoscopic radical nephrectomy with thrombectomy. During these operations, intraoperative laparoscopic ultrasonography was used to detect the thrombus and ensure complete removal. Two patients were operated through retroperitoneal approach for right renal tumor and transperitoneal approach for left renal tumor respectively. The demographics, perioperative and follow-up data were recorded for the study. Both operations were successfully performed without conversion. They both had no radiographic evidence of recurrence during follow-up. It is concluded that it is feasible to manage renal cell carcinoma with level II IVTT through pure conventional laparoscopic approach in carefully selected patients, which might expand the indication for laparoscopic surgery. The purê laparoscopic approach in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma with level II vena cava tumor thrombus is challenging and requires advanced laparoscopic skills. Multicenter prospective randomized control trials are needed to prove the benefits of this approach.
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