CT Imaging Findings and Their Relevance to the Clinical Outcomes After Stent Graft Repair of Penetrating Aortic Ulcers: Six-year, Single-center Experience
Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Asanbyeongwongil 86, Pungnap-2dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736, Korea.CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology (Impact Factor: 2.07). 12/2011; 35(6). DOI: 10.1007/s00270-011-0301-0
PURPOSE: To present the computed tomographic (CT) imaging findings and their relevance to clinical outcomes related to stent graft placement in patients with penetrating aortic ulcers (PAUs). METHODS: Medical and imaging records and imaging studies were reviewed for consecutive patients who underwent stent graft repair of a PAU. The distribution and characteristics of the PAU, technical success of stent graft repair, procedure-related complications, associated aortic wall abnormalities, and outcomes of the PAUs at follow-up CT scans were evaluated. RESULTS: Fifteen patients underwent endovascular treatment for PAU. A total of 87% of the PAUs were in the proximal (n = 8) or distal (n = 5) descending thoracic aorta. There was a broad spectrum of PAU depth (mean, 7.9 ± 5.6 mm; range 1.5-25.0 mm) and diameter (mean, 13.5 ± 9.7 mm; range 2.2-41.0 mm). Atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta and intramural hematoma were associated in 53 and 93% of the patients, respectively. Technical success was achieved in 100%. Two or more stent grafts were used in five patients. Endoleaks were observed in two patients within 2 weeks of the procedure, both of which resolved spontaneously. At follow-up CT scanning, regression and thrombosis of the PAUs were observed in all patients. The average patient survival was 61.8 months, with an overall mortality of 13% (2 of 15) at follow-up. Neither death was related to the endograft device or the PAU. CONCLUSION: Endovascular stent graft placement was safe and effective in causing regression and thrombosis of PAUs in this small series of patients. Two or more stent grafts were used in five patients (33%) with associated long-segmental atherosclerotic changes of the thoracic aorta or intramural hematoma.
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ABSTRACT: Opinion statement: Thoracic aortic disease is increasing in prevalence and can result in serious morbidity and mortality. Computed tomography (CT) angiography is an important imaging modality for assessment of thoracic aortic pathology due to wide availability, rapid acquisition, reproducibility, superior spatial and temporal resolution, and capability for 3D image post-processing. CT is the preferred imaging modality in the acute setting to rapidly identify patients with acute aortic syndromes including dissection, intramural hematoma, and penetrating aortic ulcer. CT also plays an important role in post-procedural surveillance of the thoracic aorta for early and late complications from open or endovascular repair. Incidentally detected thoracic aortic aneurysms and congenital aortic anomalies such as coarctation can be thoroughly characterized and followed over time for potential elective intervention. Drawbacks of CT include exposure to radiation and iodinated contrast media; however, recent strategies for dose reduction and contrast optimization have significantly decreased these risks. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated CT angiography provides additional information about the aortic root, coronary arteries, and other cardiac structures without motion artifacts.
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