Postoperative Complications Following Colectomy for Ulcerative Colitis in Children
Colectomy rates for ulcerative colitis (UC) and data on postcolectomy complications in children are limited. Thus, we assessed colectomy rates, early postcolectomy complications, and clinical predictors in children with UC undergoing a colectomy.
Children (18 years old or older) with UC who underwent colectomy from 1983 to 2009 were identified (n=30). All of the medical charts were reviewed. The diagnostic accuracy of International Classification of Diseases codes for UC and colectomy were validated. The primary outcome was postoperative complications defined as Clavien-Dindo classification grade II or higher. The yearly incidence of colectomies for pediatric UC was calculated and temporal trends were evaluated.
The sensitivity and positive predictive value of UC and colectomy International Classification of Diseases codes were 96% and 100%, respectively. The median ages at UC diagnosis and colectomy were 10.9 and 12.1 years, respectively. All of the children had pancolitis and 63% underwent emergent colectomy. Postoperatively, 33% experienced at least 1 complication. Patients with emergent colectomy were more likely to have a postoperative complication compared with patients with elective colectomy (90% vs 50%; P=0.03). For emergent colectomy, postoperative complications were associated with a disease flare of ≥2 weeks before admission (60% vs 0%; P=0.03) and >2 weeks from admission to colectomy (78% vs 22%; P=0.04). The average annual rate of pediatric colectomy was 0.059/100,000 person-years and stable from 1983 to 2009 (P>0.05).
Colectomy UC was uncommon and rates have remained stable. Postcolectomy complications were common, especially in patients undergoing emergent colectomy. Optimizing timing of colectomy may reduce postoperative complications.
Available from: Justin Davies
- "Wallaert et al., found that 224 of 10,431 patients with IBD developed 242 VTEs within 30 days of surgery and on average the diagnosis was made at day 10 . Soon et al. report one incidence of VTE in a retrospective study of 30 paediatric IBD patients . We had 3 VTE events, all of which occurred in the adult group: a pulmonary embolus, a sagittal sinus thrombosis, and a portal vein thrombosis. "
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ABSTRACT: Background. The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in the paediatric population. Since 2007, a single surgeon whose main practice is in the treatment of adults has performed surgery for IBD in adults and children within two dedicated multidisciplinary teams. Our aim was to assess and compare outcomes for adults and children following surgery for IBD. Methods. Analysis of a prospectively collected database was carried out to include all patients who had undergone resectional surgery for IBD between 2007 and 2012. Results. 48 adults and 30 children were included in the study. Median age for children was 14 years (range 8–16) and for adults was 33.5 years (range 17–64). Median BMI was 23 (range 18–38) and 19 (range 13–29.5) in adults and children, respectively (
). Laparoscopic resection was performed in 27 (90%) children and 36 (75%) adults. Postoperative complication rates were comparable, 11 (23%) in adults versus 6 (20%) in children (
). Conclusion. Resectional surgery for IBD in children has outcomes that compare favourably with the adult population, with the majority of cases being performed by a laparoscopic approach.
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ABSTRACT: Medical and surgical approaches toward children with ulcerative colitis (UC) vary and have differing implications for health care use. The goal of this study was to define hospital use and complications for children with UC before and after staged restorative proctocolectomy.
A retrospective study of the California Patient Discharge Dataset from 1999 to 2007 of children aged 2 to 18 years with UC who underwent colectomy was performed (N = 218). Surgical staging was determined alongside hospital type (children's vs non-children's) and surgical case volume. Postoperative complications and hospital length of stay were analyzed using multivariate regression.
The cohort was mostly male (56%) and white (80%), had private insurance (78%), and underwent colectomy at a children's hospital (62%). Overall, 65% required a separate hospital admission before admission for colectomy. Single-, 2-, and 3-stage procedures were performed in 19 (9%), 144 (66%), and 38 (17%) children. The mean admissions per patient were 1.8 ± 2.4 before colectomy and 0.7 ± 1.6 after surgical completion. Surgical complications occurred in 100 (49%) children, with 39% being attributed to postoperative infection. Children with public insurance (odds ratio, 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.85) and those who underwent colectomy at a non-children's hospital (odds ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-6.37) had increased likelihood of surgical complications. Finally, nonwhite race, surgical staging, and undergoing colectomy at a low- or medium-volume hospital resulted in prolonged hospitalization (P < .05).
Children with UC who undergo colectomy use a large number of hospital resources before surgery and exhibit decreased hospital use after surgical completion. Children undergoing colectomy at children's and high-volume hospitals experience fewer surgical complications and shorter hospitalization.
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Colectomy rates for ulcerative colitis (UC) have been inconsistently reported. We assessed temporal trends of colectomy rates for UC, stratified by emergent vs. elective colectomy indication.
From 1997 to 2009, we identified adults hospitalized for a flare of UC. Medical charts were reviewed. Temporal changes were evaluated using linear regression models to estimate the average annual percent change (AAPC) in surgical rates. Logistic regression analysis compared: (i) UC patients responding to medical management in hospital to those who underwent colectomy; (ii) UC patients who underwent an emergent vs. elective colectomy; and (iii) temporal trends of drug utilization.
From 1997 to 2009, colectomy rates significantly dropped for elective colectomies with an AAPC of -7.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): -10.8%, -3.9%). The rate of emergent colectomies remained stable with an AAPC of -1.4% (95% CI: -4.8%, 2.0%). Azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine prescriptions increased from 1997 to 2009 (odds ratio (OR)=1.15; 95% CI: 1.09-1.22) and infliximab use increased after 2005 (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.25-2.26). A 13% per year risk adjusted reduction in the odds of colectomy (OR=0.87; 95% CI: 0.83-0.92) was observed in UC patients responding to medical management compared with those who required colectomy. Emergent colectomy patients had a shorter duration of flare (<2 weeks vs. 2-8 weeks, OR=5.31; 95% CI: 1.58-17.81) and underwent colectomy early after diagnosis (<1 year vs. 1-3 years, OR=5.48; 95% CI: 2.18-13.79).
From 1997 to 2009, use of purine anti-metabolites increased and elective colectomy rates in UC patients decreased significantly. In contrast, emergent colectomy rates were stable, which may have been due to rapid progression of disease activity.
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