Tracking Blood Glucose and Predicting Prediabetes in Chinese Children and Adolescents: A Prospective Twin Study

The Mary Ann and J Milburn Smith Child Health Research Program, Children's Memorial Research Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 12/2011; 6(12):e28573. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028573
Source: PubMed


We examined the tracking of blood glucose, the development of prediabetes, and estimated their genetic contributions in a prospective, healthy, rural Chinese twin cohort. This report includes 1,766 subjects (998 males, 768 females) aged 6-21 years at baseline who completed a 6-year follow-up study. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed for all subjects at both baseline and follow-up. We found that subjects with low fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or 2 h post-load glucose (PG) levels at baseline tended to remain at the low level at follow-up. Subjects in the top tertile of baseline plasma glucose tended to have a higher risk of developing prediabetes at follow-up compared to the low tertile: in males, 37.6% vs. 27.6% for FPG and 37.2% vs. 25.7% for 2hPG, respectively; in females, 31.0% vs. 15.4% for FPG and 28.9% vs. 15.1% for 2 h PG, respectively. Genetic factors explained 43% and 41% of the variance of FPG, and 72% and 47% for impaired fasting glucose for males and females, respectively; environmental factors substantially contribute to 2hPG status and impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, in this cohort of healthy rural Chinese children and adolescents, we demonstrated that both FPG and 2hPG tracked well and was a strong predictor of prediabetes. The high proportion of children with top tertile of blood glucose progressed to prediabetes, and the incidence of prediabetes has a male predominance. Genetic factors play more important role in fasting than postload status, most of which was explained by unique environmental factors.

Download full-text


Available from: Lester M Arguelles
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this cohort of severely obese children and adolescents in Sweden we investigate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance, (IGT) and silent type 2 diabetes (T2D), in relation to insulin resistance, insulin secretion, disposition index and cardio respiratory fitness. A total of 134 obese children and adolescents [57 females, 77 males, age 13.7 ± 2.7, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) 3.6 ± 0.6] consecutively referred to the National Childhood Obesity Centre performed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (fs-IVGTT), dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bicycle ergometer test and fasting levels of glucose, insulin and c-peptide were obtained and homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG) were present in 35.8 and 6% had isolated IGT. Combined IGT and IFG were present in 14.2%. The subjects with combined IGT/IFG had significantly lower acute insulin response (AIR) compared with subjects who had normal glucose metabolism or i-IFG (p < 0.05). Among the prepubertal children (n = 24), 25% (6/24) had i-IFG and 25% (6/24) had IGT/IFG and it was predominantly males. Disposition index was the major determinant of 2-h glucose levels (β = -0.49, p = 0.0126). No silent diabetes was detected. In this cohort of severely obese children and adolescents the prevalence of prediabetes was very high. IFG was two times higher in this cohort of severely obese children than in a recently published unselected cohort of obese children in Sweden. In spite of the high prevalence of prediabetes, no subjects with silent diabetes were found.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Pediatric Diabetes
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is associated with increased cardiovascular disease, mortality and morbidity. The present study aimed at assessing fasting blood sugar (FBS) in elementary school students in Birjand, 2012. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was done on 1530 elementary school students who had been selected through multiple cluster sampling. FBS of these students was tested applying the enzymatic process. The obtained data was analyzed by means of SPSS software (v15) and statistical tests t and X(2). In this study, 833 girls and 697 boys were evaluated. Mean FBS of the whole study population was 86.9 ± 8.8 mg/dL; FBS was higher in boys compared to girls. FBS of 1453 (95%) children was < 100 mg/dL, the mean being 85.8 ± 6.8 mg/dL. FBS of 698 (45.6%) students of the above population was 86-99 mg/dl. It was 100-125 mg/dL in 72 (4.7%) individuals. Five (0.3%) students had FBS >126 mg/dL. Mean FBS increased in proportion to age, which was statistically significant. Although the prevalence of diabetes is not considerable; however, based on the relatively high portion of those children with high degree of blood glucose in the range in which the risk of diabetes and prediabetes in the following years rises dramatically, the need for further care of health authorities, an extensive screening activity, and undertaking intervening measures to prevent the epidemic of diabetes and consequently cardiovascular disease is emphasized.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: To determine the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in adolescents in Birjand city in eastern Iran. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 2653 students aged 11-18 years selected through multi-stage stratified and random sampling. Fasting blood glucose (FBS) of these students was measured applying the enzymatic process. The obtained data were analyzed by means of SPSS software (V: 15) and statistical tests T and X2. Results: The mean age of individual was 14.5 ± 2 years. Mean FBS of the whole population was 89.8 ± 9.8 mg/dl, but it was significantly higher among boys than girls (P < 0.001). Out of the whole subjects (92.4%), 1,328 (95.1%) of the girls and 1,122 (89.3%) of the boys, FBS was less than 100 mg/dl among whom 64.4% had FBS above 86 mg/dl. In 200 subjects (7.5%) of whole population, FBS was 100-125 mg/dl; with that of the boys was 2.3 times than the girls revealing a prediabetes condition: OR = 2.3(CI: 1.7-3.2). Among the students, 3 (0.1%) had an FBS > 126 mg/dl. Mean blood glucose was significant regarding age and sex. Conclusions: High prevalence of high FBS (within normal range) among adolescents is warning and requires special attention of health officials. Screening of children and adolescents in order to identify those at risk and plan for intervening is urgent to prevent type-2 diabetes epidemic and following cardiovascular complications in the Society.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015