Profilin 1 is a Potential Biomarker for Bladder Cancer Aggressiveness

ArticleinMolecular & Cellular Proteomics 11(4):M111.009449 · December 2011with24 Reads
DOI: 10.1074/mcp.M111.009449 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Of the most important clinical needs for bladder cancer (BC) management is the identification of biomarkers for disease aggressiveness. Urine is a "gold mine" for biomarker discovery, nevertheless, with multiple proteins being in low amounts, urine proteomics becomes challenging. In the present study we applied a fractionation strategy of urinary proteins based on the use of immobilized metal affinity chromatography for the discovery of biomarkers for aggressive BC. Urine samples from patients with non invasive (two pools) and invasive (two pools) BC were subjected to immobilized metal affinity chromatography fractionation and eluted proteins analyzed by 1D-SDS-PAGE, band excision and liquid chromatography tandem MS. Among the identified proteins, multiple corresponded to proteins with affinity for metals and/or reported to be phosphorylated and included proteins with demonstrated association with BC such as MMP9, fibrinogen forms, and clusterin. In agreement to the immobilized metal affinity chromatography results, aminopeptidase N, profilin 1, and myeloblastin were further found to be differentially expressed in urine from patients with invasive compared with non invasive BC and benign controls, by Western blot or Elisa analysis, nevertheless exhibiting high interindividual variability. By tissue microarray analysis, profilin 1 was found to have a marked decrease of expression in the epithelial cells of the invasive (T2+) versus high risk non invasive (T1G3) tumors with occasional expression in stroma; importantly, this pattern strongly correlated with poor prognosis and increased mortality. The functional relevance of profilin 1 was investigated in the T24 BC cells where blockage of the protein by the use of antibodies resulted in decreased cell motility with concomitant decrease in actin polymerization. Collectively, our study involves the application of a fractionation method of urinary proteins and as one main result of this analysis reveals the association of profilin 1 with BC paving the way for its further investigation in BC stratification.
    • "Cofilin (CFL1) has been confirmed to be increased in ccRCC [54] but has not been confirmed in late-stage ccRCC, though it is known to be associated with metastasis in many solid tumors [56][57][58]. Profilin (PFN1) has been shown to be increased in metastatic ccRCC by IHC [35] and is also a candidate marker of bladder cancer metastasis [59], though it is also down-regulated in numerous other cancers (as discussed by [35] ). Nicotinamide Nmethyltransferase (NNMT) has recently been shown to be an interesting candidate marker of aggressive ccRCC by two recent studies: Lebdai et al. demonstrated NNMT overexpression by western blotting in ccRCC tissues with high SSIGN scores [23], while Zaravinos et al. identified NNMT following a large meta-analysis of five published transcriptomic data sets and confirmed overexpression by IHC in ccRCC tissues [60] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma comprises 2 to 3% of malignancies in adults with the most prevalent subtype being clear-cell RCC (ccRCC). This type of cancer is well characterized at the genomic and transcriptomic level and is associated with a loss of VHL that results in stabilization of HIF1. The current study focused on evaluating ccRCC stage dependent changes at the proteome level to provide insight into the molecular pathogenesis of ccRCC progression. To accomplish this, label-free proteomics was used to characterize matched tumor and normal-adjacent tissues from 84 patients with stage I to IV ccRCC. Using pooled samples 1551 proteins were identified, of which 290 were differentially abundant, while 783 proteins were identified using individual samples, with 344 being differentially abundant. These 344 differentially abundant proteins were enriched in metabolic pathways and further examination revealed metabolic dysfunction consistent with the Warburg effect. Additionally, the protein data indicated activation of ESRRA and ESRRG, and HIF1A, as well as inhibition of FOXA1, MAPK1 and WISP2. A subset analysis of complementary gene expression array data on 47 pairs of these same tissues indicated similar upstream changes, such as increased HIF1A activation with stage, though ESRRA and ESRRG activation and FOXA1 inhibition were not predicted from the transcriptomic data. The activation of ESRRA and ESRRG implied that HIF2A may also be activated during later stages of ccRCC, which was confirmed in the transcriptional analysis. This combined analysis highlights the importance of HIF1A and HIF2A in developing the ccRCC molecular phenotype as well as the potential involvement of ESRRA and ESRRG in driving these changes. In addition, cofilin-1, profilin-1, nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A were identified as candidate markers of late stage ccRCC. Utilization of data collected from heterogeneous biological domains strengthened the findings from each domain, demonstrating the complementary nature of such an analysis. Together these results highlight the importance of the VHL/HIF1A/HIF2A axis and provide a foundation and therapeutic targets for future studies. (Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003271 and MassIVE with identifier MSV000079511.).
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016
    Benjamin A NeelyBenjamin A NeelyChristopher E WilkinsLaura A MarlowLaura A Marlow+8 more authors ...Richard R DrakeRichard R Drake
    • "re than 1,500 proteins, the majority of which are extracellular and membrane bound along with cells and cellular debris, inorganic ions (K + , Na + , Cl − and Ca 2+ ) and organic molecules such as creatinine, urea, and uric acid. All these substances can hinder the efficient binding of a protein to its corresponding antibody used in an ELISA assay. [12,26] Variability of urine matrix components such as electrolytes or pH can also have an effect on antibody binding and therefore on the performance of the immunoassay. [27] In the case of multiplex bead array assays, to compensate for the impact of matrix effects on biological fluids, manufacturers have developed standard sample diluents "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ELISA is the main approach for the sensitive quantification of protein biomarkers in body fluids and is currently employed in clinical laboratories for the measurement of clinical markers. As such, it also constitutes the main methodological approach for biomarker validation and further qualification. For the latter, specific assay performance requirements have to be met, as described in respective guidelines of regulatory agencies. Even though many clinical ELISA assays in serum are regularly used, ELISA clinical applications in urine are significantly less. The scope of our study was to evaluate ELISA assay analytical performance in urine for a series of potential biomarkers for bladder cancer, as a first step towards their large scale clinical validation. Seven biomarkers (Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, Survivin, Slit homolog 2 protein, NRC-Interacting Factor 1, Histone 2B, Proteinase-3 and Profilin-1) previously described in the literature as having differential expression in bladder cancer were included in the study. A total of 11 commercially available ELISA tests for these markers were tested by standard curve analysis, assay reproducibility, linearity and spiking experiments. The results show disappointing performance with coefficients of variation>20% for the vast majority of the tests performed. Only 3 assays (for Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, Survivin and Slit homolog 2 protein) passed the accuracy thresholds and were found suitable for further application in marker quantification. These results collectively reflect the difficulties in developing urine-based ELISA assays of sufficient analytical performance for clinical application, presumably attributed to the urine matrix itself and/or presence of markers in various isoforms.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016
    • "Transaldolase 1 (TALDO1) and lysophospholipase I (LYPLA1) are metabolic enzymes implicated in the development and progression of various tumors. Genetics variations of TALDO1 have been linked to breast, colorectal , head, and neck cancers [34] , while up-regulated protein levels were found in urine of bladder can- cer [35] and serum of colorectal patients [36]. LYPLA1 contributes to cancer initiation, progression and meta- stasis [37] and its aberrant production has been found in bladder cancer tissue [38]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The key to a more effective diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic management of prostate cancer (PCa) could lie in the direct analysis of cancer tissue. In this study, by comparative proteomics analysis of PCa and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissues we attempted to elucidate the proteins and regulatory pathways involved in this disease. The samples used in this study were fresh surgical tissues with clinically and histologically confirmed PCa (n = 19) and BPH (n = 33). We used two dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) and bioinformatics analysis. Thirty-nine spots with statistically significant 1.8-fold variation or more in abundance, corresponding to 28 proteins were identified. The IPA analysis pointed out to 3 possible networks regulated within MAPK, ERK, TGFB1, and ubiquitin pathways. Thirteen of the identified proteins, namely, constituents of the intermediate filaments (KRT8, KRT18, DES), potential tumor suppressors (ARHGAP1, AZGP1, GSTM2, and MFAP4), transport and membrane organization proteins (FABP5, GC, and EHD2), chaperons (FKBP4 and HSPD1) and known cancer marker (NME1) have been associated with prostate and other cancers by numerous proteomics, genomics or functional studies. We evidenced for the first time the dysregulation of 9 proteins (CSNK1A1, ARID5B, LYPLA1, PSMB6, RABEP1, TALDO1, UBE2N, PPP1CB, and SERPINB1) that may have role in PCa. The UBE2N, PSMB6, and PPP1CB, involved in cell cycle regulation and progression were evaluated by Western blot analysis which confirmed significantly higher abundances of UBE2N and PSMB6 and significantly lower abundance of PPP1CB in PCa. In addition to the identification of substantial number of proteins with known association with PCa, the proteomic approach in this study revealed proteins not previously clearly related to PCa, providing a starting point for further elucidation of their function in disease initiation and progression. Prostate © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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