-Mangostin, a xanthone from mangosteen fruit, promotes cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer and decreases xenograft tumor growth

Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, 833 South Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612-7230, USA.
Carcinogenesis (Impact Factor: 5.33). 12/2011; 33(2):413-9. DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgr291
Source: PubMed


There is a need to characterize promising dietary agents for chemoprevention and therapy of prostate cancer (PCa). We examined the anticancer effect of α-mangostin, derived from the mangosteen fruit, in human PCa cells and its role in targeting cell cycle-related proteins involved in prostate carcinogenesis. Using an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, we found that α-mangostin significantly decreases PCa cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Further analysis using flow cytometry identified cell cycle arrest along with apoptosis. To establish a more precise mechanism of action, we performed a cell free biochemical kinase assay against multiple cyclins/cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) involved in cell cycle progression; the most significant inhibition in the cell free-based assays was CDK4, a critical component of the G1 phase. Through molecular modeling, we evaluated α-mangostin against the adenosine triphosphate-binding pocket of CDK4 and propose three possible orientations that may result in CDK4 inhibition. We then performed an in vivo animal study to evaluate the ability of α-mangostin to suppress tumor growth. Athymic nude mice were implanted with 22Rv1 cells and treated with vehicle or α-mangostin (100 mg/kg) by oral gavage. At the conclusion of the study, mice in the control cohort had a tumor volume of 1190 mm(3), while the treatment group had a tumor volume of 410 mm(3) (P < 0.01). The ability of α-mangostin to inhibit PCa in vitro and in vivo suggests α-mangostin may be a novel agent for the management of PCa.

Download full-text


Available from: Imtiaz A Siddiqui
  • Source
    • "LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA) and maintained under standard cell culture conditions as described previously[8]. Primary prostatic epithelial cells (PrECs) were established from radical prostatectomy tissue at the University of Illinois at Chicago Medical Center as described previously[14]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit has been a popular food in Southeast Asia for centuries and is increasing in popularity in Western countries. We identified α-Mangostin as a primary phytochemical modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer cells and propose that α-Mangostin is responsible for exerting a biological effect in prostate cancer cells. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with α-Mangostin and evaluated by RT-PCR, western blot, fluorescent microscopy and siRNA transfection to evaluate ER stress. Next, we evaluated α-Mangostin for microsomal stability, pharmacokinetic parameters, and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. α-Mangostin significantly upregulated ER stress markers in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, α-Mangostin did not promote ER stress in prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) from prostate cancer patients. CHOP knockdown enhanced α-Mangostin-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. α-Mangostin significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Our study suggests that α-Mangostin is not the only active constituent from the mangosteen fruit requiring further work to understand the complex chemical composition of the mangosteen.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
  • Source
    • "Alpha-mangostin (α-mangostin, Figure  1A) is the most abundant xanthone existed in mangosteen pericarp. It has been confirmed to have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in various types of human cancer cells [12-16]. We previously reported that α-mangostin showed both fast-binding and slow-binding inhibitions to FAS in vitro. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been proven over-expressed in human breast cancer cells and consequently, has been recognized as a target for breast cancer treatment. Alpha-mangostin, a natural xanthone found in mangosteen pericarp, has a variety of biological activities, including anti-cancer effect. In our previous study, alpha-mangostin had been found both fast-binding and slow-binding inhibitions to FAS in vitro. This study was designed to investigate the activity of alpha-mangostin on intracellular FAS activity in FAS over-expressed human breast cancer cells, and to testify whether the anti-cancer activity of alpha-mangostin may be related to its inhibitory effect on FAS. Methods We evaluated the cytotoxicity of alpha-mangostin in human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Intracellular FAS activity was measured by a spectrophotometer at 340 nm of NADPH absorption. Cell Counting Kit assay was used to test the cell viability. Immunoblot analysis was performed to detect FAS expression level, intracellular fatty acid accumulation and cell signaling (FAK, ERK1/2 and AKT). Apoptotic effects were detected by flow cytometry and immunoblot analysis of PARP, Bax and Bcl-2. Small interfering RNA was used to down-regulate FAS expression and/or activity. Results Alpha-mangostin could effectively suppress FAS expression and inhibit intracellular FAS activity, and result in decrease of intracellular fatty acid accumulation. It could also reduce cell viability, induce apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, increase in the levels of the PARP cleavage product, and attenuate the balance between anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family. Moreover, alpha-mangostin inhibited the phosphorylation of FAK. However, the active forms of AKT, and ERK1/2 proteins were not involved in the changes of FAS expression induced by alpha-mangostin. Conclusions Alpha-mangostin induced breast cancer cell apoptosis by inhibiting FAS, which provide a basis for the development of xanthone as an agent for breast cancer therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Molecular Cancer
  • Source
    • "Another report demonstrated that F344 rats fed with custom-blended food pellets that contained 0.02 or 0.05% í µí»¼-mangostin for 5 weeks also showed no apparent adverse effects [41]. In addition, mangosteen that contains abundant amounts of í µí»¼-mangostin is widely consumed by humans in the form of juices, dietary supplements , and fruit [18]. Therefore, the anticancer activity of í µí»¼-mangostin suggests that í µí»¼-mangostin has the potential to be a novel adjuvant therapy or complementary alternative medicine for the management of pancreatic cancer. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: α -Mangostin, a natural product isolated from the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit, has been shown to inhibit the growth of tumor cells in various types of cancers. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unclear. Here, we report that α -mangostin suppressed the viability and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of pancreatic cancer cells through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Treatment of pancreatic cancer BxPc-3 and Panc-1 cells with α -mangostin resulted in loss of cell viability, accompanied by enhanced cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and decrease of cyclin-D1. Moreover, Transwell and Matrigel invasion assays showed that α -mangostin significantly reduced the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. Consistent with these results, α -mangostin decreased the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, N-cadherin, and vimentin and increased the expression of E-cadherin. Furthermore, we found that α -mangostin suppressed the activity of the PI3K/Akt pathway in pancreatic cancer cells as demonstrated by the reduction of the Akt phosphorylation by α -mangostin. Finally, α -mangostin significantly inhibited the growth of BxPc-3 tumor mouse xenografts. Our results suggest that α -mangostin may be potentially used as a novel adjuvant therapy or complementary alternative medicine for the management of pancreatic cancers.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
Show more