Renz, H., Brandtzaeg, P. & Hornef, M. The impact of perinatal immune development on mucosal homeostasis and chronic inflammation. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 12, 9-23
Institute of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiochemistry, Molecular Diagnostics, Philipps University Marburg, Medical Faculty, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg, Germany.Nature Reviews Immunology (Impact Factor: 34.99). 12/2011; 12(1):9-23. DOI: 10.1038/nri3112
The mucosal surfaces of the gut and airways have important barrier functions and regulate the induction of immunological tolerance. The rapidly increasing incidence of chronic inflammatory disorders of these surfaces, such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma, indicates that the immune functions of these mucosae are becoming disrupted in humans. Recent data indicate that events in prenatal and neonatal life orchestrate mucosal homeostasis. Several environmental factors promote the perinatal programming of the immune system, including colonization of the gut and airways by commensal microorganisms. These complex microbial-host interactions operate in a delicate temporal and spatial manner and have an important role in the induction of homeostatic mechanisms.
- "In a healthy individual, the gut is in a state of eubiosis, populated by a diverse array of microorganisms and marked by oral tolerance to commensal bacteria and benign antigens (Walker, 2013). Inadequate colonization during this early period, however, may lead to dysbiosis (or an imbalance between commensal and pathogenic organisms), which may increase susceptibility to a variety of immune-related pathogenic states (Renz, Brandtzaeg, & Hornef, 2012; Walker, 2013) and other adverse metabolic or immune outcomes. In this way, the gut microbiome may be viewed as a key mediator between exposures to internal and external environmental factors, including diet and stress (Sudo, 2014), and health and developmental outcomes (Grenham, Clarke, Cryan, & Dinan, 2011). "
Article: The Infant Microbiome[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Beginning at birth, the microbes in the gut perform essential duties related to the digestion and metabolism of food, the development and activation of the immune system, and the production of neurotransmitters that affect behavior and cognitive function. Objectives: The objectives of this review are to (a) provide a brief overview of the microbiome and the “microbiome–gut–brain axis”; (b) discuss factors known to affect the composition of the infant microbiome: mode of delivery, antibiotic exposure, and infant-feeding patterns; and (c) present research priorities for nursing science and clinical implications for infant health and neurocognitive development. Discussion: The gut microbiome influences immunological, endocrine, and neural pathways and plays an important role in infant development. Several factors influence colonization of the infant gut microbiome. Different microbial colonization patterns are associated with vaginal versus surgical birth, exposure to antibiotics, and infant-feeding patterns. Because of extensive physiological influence, infant microbial colonization patterns have the potential to impact physical and neurocognitive development and life course disease risk. Understanding these influences will inform newborn care and parental education.
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- "Prenatal organ development takes place in the presence of an immature immune system and continues after birth as the immune system reaches its full potential. In epithelial organs such as lung, breast, and intestine, postnatal organogenesis is regulated by communication between epithelial cells and innate immune cells (Reed and Schwertfeger, 2010; Renz et al., 2012). "
ABSTRACT: Postnatal organogenesis occurs in an immune competent environment and is tightly controlled by interplay between positive and negative regulators. Innate immune cells have beneficial roles in postnatal tissue remodeling, but roles for the adaptive immune system are currently unexplored. Here we show that adaptive immune responses participate in the normal postnatal development of a non-lymphoid epithelial tissue. Since the mammary gland (MG) is the only organ developing predominantly after birth, we utilized it as a powerful system to study adaptive immune regulation of organogenesis. We found that antigen-mediated interactions between mammary antigen-presenting cells and interferon-γ (IFNγ)-producing CD4+ T helper 1 cells participate in MG postnatal organogenesis as negative regulators, locally orchestrating epithelial rearrangement. IFNγ then affects luminal lineage differentiation. This function of adaptive immune responses, regulating normal development, changes the paradigm for studying players of postnatal organogenesis and provides insights into immune surveillance and cancer transformation.
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- "In recent years, crosskingdom investigations have garnered attention, especially on the symbiotic bacteria in animals. The intestinal microbiota can play crucial roles in digestion, nutrition, and immune response of the animal hosts including human (Harris 1993; Turnbaugh et al. 2006; Renz et al. 2011) or during development , such as of the mammalian brain (Diaz Heijtz et al. 2011) and vertebrate gastrointestinal tract (Bouskra et al. 2008). In a recent study, Moran and Yun (2015) found that the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum with the bacterium Buchnera increased in heat tolerance, demonstrating that the symbiont genotype can also affect the host ecology and, thus, its evolutionary history. "
ABSTRACT: During evolution of animals, their co-evolution with bacteria has generally been ignored. Recent studies have provided evidences that the symbiotic bacteria in the animal gut can either be essential or contributing to the plasticity of the host. The Crustacea includes crab, crayfish, lobster, and shrimp and represents the second largest subphylum on the planet. Although there are already studies investigating the intestinal bacterial communities in crustaceans, none of them has examined the microbiota in different parts of the digestive system during the gonad development of the host. Here, we utilized a new shrimp model Neocaridina denticulata and sequenced the 16S rRNA using the Ion Torrent platform to survey the bacterial populations colonizing the hepatopancreas, foregut, and intestine, including midgut and hindgut, of the early, mid, and late ovarian maturation stages of the shrimp. The predominant bacteria phylum was found to be Proteobacteria, with more than 80 % reads from the gut flora at the early gonad development belonged to a Coxiella-type bacterium. Distinct bacterial communities can be detected between the hepatopancreas and gut, although no significant difference could be revealed between the different regions of the gut investigated. Surprisingly, during the gonad development, bacterial diversity changed rapidly in the gut but not the hepatopancreas. This study provides the first evidence that microbiota modified differentially in specific regions of the digestive tract during gonadal development of crustaceans.
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