Rapid Increase in Training Load Affects Markers of Skeletal Muscle Damage and Mechanical Performance

1Sports and Movement Science Center, Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education, Kaunas, Lithuania 2Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 12/2011; 26(11):2953-61. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318243ff21
Source: PubMed


Kamandulis, S, Snieckus, A, Venckunas, T, Aagaard, P, Masiulis, N, and Skurvydas, A. Rapid increase in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance. J Strength Cond Res 26(11): 2953-2961, 2012-The aim of this study was to monitor the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks (9 training sessions) of stretch-shortening (drop jump) exercise with constant load alternated with steep increases in load. Physically active men (n = 9, mean age 19.1 years) performed a program involving a rapid stepwise increase in the number of jumps, drop height, and squat depth, and the addition of weight. Concentric, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and stimulated knee extension torque were measured before and 10 minutes after each session. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed after each session. Steep increments in stretch-shortening exercise load in sessions 4 and 7 amplified the postexercise decrease in stimulated muscle torque and slightly increased muscle soreness but had a minimal effect on the recovery of MVC and stimulated torque. Maximal jump height increased by 7.8 ± 6.3% (p < 0.05), 11.4 ± 3.3% (p < 0.05), and 12.8 ± 3.6% (p < 0.05) at 3, 10, and 17 days after the final training session, respectively. Gains in isometric knee extension MVC (7.9 ± 8.2%) and 100-Hz-evoked torque (9.9 ± 9.6%) (both p < 0.05) were observed within 17 days after the end of the training. The magnitude of improvement was greater after this protocol than that induced by a continuous constant progression loading pattern with small gradual load increments in each training session. These findings suggest that plyometric training using infrequent but steep increases in loading intensity and volume may be beneficial to athletic performance.

56 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Physiological responses and performance were examined during and after a simulated trampoline competition (STC). Fifteen elite trampoline gymnasts participated, of which whereas eight completed two routines (EX1 and EX2) and a competition final (EX3). Trampoline-specific activities were quantified by video-analysis. Countermovement jump (CMJ) and 20 maximal trampoline jump (20-MTJ) performances were assessed. Heart rate (HR) and quadriceps muscle temperature (T m) were recorded and venous blood was drawn. A total of 252 ± 16 jumps were performed during the STC. CMJ performance declined (P < 0.05) by 3.8, 5.2 and 4.2% after EX1, EX2 and EX3, respectively, and was 4.8% lower (P < 0.05) than baseline 24 h post-competition. 20-MTJ flight time was ∼1% shorter (P < 0.05) for jump 1-10 after EX2 and 24 h post STC. T m increased (P < 0.05) to ∼39°C after the warm-up, but declined (P < 0.05) 1.0 and 0.6ºC before EX2 and EX3, respectively. Peak HR was 95-97% HR max during EX1-3. Peak blood lactate, plasma K(+) and NH3 were 6.5 ± 0.5, 6.0 ± 0.2 mmol · l(-1) and 92 ± 10 µmol · l(-1), respectively. Plasma CK increased (P < 0.05) by ∼50 and 65% 0 and 24 h after STC. In conclusion, a trampoline gymnastic competition includes a high number of repeated explosive and energy demanding jumps, which impairs jump performance during and 24 h post-competition.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Sports Sciences
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: João GA, Evangelista AL, Gomes JH, Charro MA, Bocalini D, Cardozo D, Simão R, Figueira Júnior A, Silva DCS. Effect of 16 Weeks of Periodized Resistance Training on Strength Gains of Powerlifting Athletes. JEPonline 2014;17(3):102-109. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 16 wks of periodized resistance training on strength gains of 9 elite powerlifting athletes (men, 34.5 ± 5.0 yrs, 175.2 ± 7.8 cm, 94 4 ± 16.7 kg). The levels of strength ratings were determined by the 1RM test and divided into 5 stages (AS): AS1-initial assessment, before the start of periodized training; AS2-end of 1st 4-wk mesocycle and beginning of 2nd mesocycle; AS3-end of 2nd 4-wk mesocycle and beginning of 3rd mesocycle; AS4-end of 3rd mesocycle and beginning of 4th mesocycle; AS5-end of 4th 4-wk mesocycle. Squat, bench press, and deadlift exercises were used to measure muscle strength. There was a significant increase in strength in all exercises and each assessment compared to the pre-training values (P≤0.05). After 16 wks of training, there was a 30Δ% increase in bench press, 33Δ% for squat, and 76.9Δ% for deadlift exercise compared to pre-training values. Thus, the results of this study indicate that linear periodization training applied in powerlifting athletes is an efficient method to increase muscular strength.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of a rapid weight loss on dietary intakes, psychological parameters and physical performance of 11 international weightlifters. During the first period (T1), all subjects maintained their body weight and participated in a simulated weightlifting competition. Then, they were assigned into 2 groups depending on whether they lost (Group 2) or maintained (Group 1) their body weight over 6 days. A battery of tests was performed at T1 and after a 6-day food restriction (T2), including assessment for body composition, performance, evaluation of mood states and fatigue. Dietary data were collected using a 6-day diet record. A 4.34% reduction of body weight was achieved by a significant reduction of total energy intakes (- 40%), inducing a significant alteration of the general recovery score (p<0.05) and evaluated through the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. Increase in conflicts/pressure, emotional stress and physical complaints were observed. Intakes of vitamins B1, B3, B6, B9 and magnesium were significantly lower than the recommendations during the weight loss period. However, the food restriction did not impair weightlifting performance. Reduced energy and micronutrient intakes, inducing a rapid weight loss, could be a limiting factor to training adaptations and a threat towards athlete's health if frequently used.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · International Journal of Sports Medicine