A Cohort Study of Hyperuricemia in Middle-aged South Korean Men
Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2024 East Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.American journal of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 12/2011; 175(2):133-43. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwr291
Few prospective studies have assessed the incidence and determinants of asymptomatic hyperuricemia in free-living populations. The authors' goals in this study were to estimate the incidence of hyperuricemia and quantify the dose-response relations of specific risk factors with hyperuricemia in middle-aged South Korean male workers. The authors followed a cohort of 10,802 hyperuricemia-free men aged 30-59 years, examining them annually or biennially at a university hospital in Seoul, South Korea, from 2002 to 2009. A parametric Cox model and a pooled logistic regression model were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for incident hyperuricemia (defined as serum uric acid level ≥7.0 mg/dL) according to prespecified risk factors. During 51,210.6 person-years of follow-up, 2,496 men developed hyperuricemia (incidence rate = 48.7 per 1,000 person-years, 95% confidence interval: 46.8, 50.7). The incidence of hyperuricema increased across baseline categories of age, body mass index, alcohol intake, blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, triglycerides, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and fatty liver, whereas fasting glucose, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were inversely associated with incident hyperuricemia. Development of hyperuricemia, a very common outcome among apparently healthy South Korean men, was predicted by a variety of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, suggesting that lifestyle modification may help reduce the incidence of hyperuricemia.
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- "person-years of follow-up, 2496 male developed hyperuricemia (incidence rate of 48.7 per 1000 person-years, 95 % CI 46.8, 50.7), and fatty liver was also associated with increased incidence of hyperuricemia with a hazard ratio (95 % CI) of 1.13 (1.02–1.25), although the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Evidence observed from prospective studies suggests that NAFLD and hyperuricemia can cause and worsen each other and result in a more deteriorated metabolic status. "
ABSTRACT: Uric acid is the end product of dietary or endogenous purines degradation, and hyperuricemia is one of the most common metabolic disorders. It has been widely accepted that hyperuricemia increases risks of gout, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes. A growing body of evidence, comprising a great deal of cross-sectional studies and several prospective ones, also indicates that hyperuricemia is associated with increased prevalence, incidence and disease severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). On the contrary, NAFLD can predict hyperuricemia as well. However, no causal relationship can be drawn from this point. With a well-established relationship between uric acid and NAFLD prevalence as well as disease severity in addition to the role of potential therapeutic target, the prognostic role of uric acid is also worth investigating. Further studies should focus on the prospective role of uric acid on NAFLD progression and its underlying mechanisms, as well as its clinical implications.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the prevalence of gout associated with progressive degrees of kidney disease in the US population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis among non-institutionalized adults (age 20 and older) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 1988-1994 and 2007-2010. Gout status was ascertained by self-report of physician-diagnosed gout. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined in stages based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and single albuminuria measurements (albumin-to-creatinine ratio). Prevalence ratios comparing successive categories of GFR, albuminuria, and CKD as well as temporal trends over a 22-year interval were determined via Poisson regression. Results: In the US, the crude prevalence of gout was 2-3% among participants without CKD, 4% among participants with CKD stage 1, 6-10% for stage 2, 11-13% for stage 3, and over 30% for stage 4. The adjusted prevalence ratio comparing the CKD stage 4 stratum to participants without CKD was 3.20 (95% CI: 1.96, 5.24) in 2007-2010 and remained significant even after adjustment for serum uric acid. Notably, there was a statistically significant, progressively greater adjusted prevalence ratio of gout associated with successively lower categories of GFR and higher categories of albuminuria. Conclusions: Among US adults, there exists a strong dose-response association between impaired renal function and prevalent gout. Health providers should be aware of the elevated burden of gout among patients with CKD especially when evaluating new onset joint pain and swelling.
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ABSTRACT: First-line therapy of hypertension includes diuretics, known to exert a multiplicative increase on the risk of gout. Detailed insight into the underlying prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in persons with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) and common comorbidities is informative to practitioners initiating antihypertensive agents. We quantify the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in persons with uncontrolled BP and additional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. We performed a cross-sectional study of non-institutionalized US adults, 18 years and older, using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 1988-1994 and 1999-2010. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid >6.0 mg/dL in women; >7.0 mg/dL in men. Gout was ascertained by self-report of physician-diagnosed gout. Uncontrolled BP was based on measured systolic BP≥140 mmHg and diastolic BP≥90 mmHg. Additional CVD risk factors included obesity, reduced glomerular filtration rate, and dyslipidemia. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 6-8% among healthy US adults, 10-15% among adults with uncontrolled BP, 22-25% with uncontrolled BP and one additional CVD risk factor, and 34-37% with uncontrolled BP and two additional CVD risk factors. Similarly, the prevalence of gout was successively greater, at 1-2%, 4-5%, 6-8%, and 8-12%, respectively, across these same health status categories. In 2007-2010, those with uncontrolled BP and 2 additional CVD risk factors compared to those without CVD risk factors had prevalence ratios of 4.5 (95% CI 3.5-5.6) and 4.5 (95% CI: 3.1-6.3) for hyperuricemia and gout respectively (<0.01). Health care providers should be cognizant of the incrementally higher prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout among patients with uncontrolled BP and additional CVD risk factors. With one in three people affected by hyperuricemia among those with several CVD risk factors, physicians should consider their anti-hypertensive regimens carefully and potentially screen for hyperuricemia or gout.
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