ArticleLiterature Review

The association between Internet addiction and psychiatric disorder: A review of the literature

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Abstract

Internet addiction is a newly emergent disorder. It has been found to be associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Information about such coexisting psychiatric disorders is essential to understand the mechanism of Internet addiction. In this review, we have recruited articles mentioning coexisting psychiatric disorders of Internet addiction from the PubMed database as at November 3, 2009. We describe the updated results for such disorders of Internet addiction, which include substance use disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, hostility, and social anxiety disorder. We also provide discussion for possible mechanisms accounting for the coexistence of psychiatric disorders and Internet addiction. The review might suggest that combined psychiatric disorders mentioned above should be evaluated and treated to prevent their deteriorating effect on the prognosis of Internet addiction. On the other hand, Internet addiction should be paid more attention to when treating people with these coexisting psychiatric disorders of Internet addiction. Additionally, we also suggest future necessary research directions that could provide further important information for the understanding of this issue.

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... Regarding the relationship between participation in after-school activities and depressive symptoms, Oberle et al. [17] found that sedentary leisure activities (such as watching TV and surfing the Internet and playing video games) were positively related to adolescent depressive symptoms, while physical sports and interest class extracurricular activities were negatively associated with adolescent depressive symptoms. Other studies also found that teenagers who were addicted to the Internet or video games or spending too much time watching TV tended to have anxiety, depression, sensitivity, withdrawal, inferiority, a lack of social courage, and behavioral problems [18][19][20]. ...
... Question 3: Is participation in different after-school activities related to depressive symptoms among Chinese early adolescents? Based on the literature, we proposed time spent on homework [21], extracurricular tutoring [22,23], watching TV, and surfing online and playing online games [18][19][20] would be positively associated with depressive symptoms among Chinese early adolescents (Hypothesis 3a). On the other hand, time spent on interest classes [33,34] and physical exercise [28][29][30] would be negatively associated with depressive symptoms among Chinese early adolescents (Hypothesis 3b). ...
... We found that time spent writing homework assigned by teachers, attending extracurricular tutoring classes, and playing online games were positively associated with students' depressive symptoms. This observation is consistent with the previous studies [18][19][20][21][22][23]. Besides, consistent with other studies [28][29][30], time spent taking part in physical exercise was negatively associated with students' depressive symptoms. ...
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Although Western studies showed that participation in extracurricular activities was intimately linked to adolescents’ psychological adjustment, very few studies have addressed this issue among early adolescents in China. Based on a nationally representative sample of 9672 Chinese junior high school students (Mage = 14.54 years, SD = 0.70 years), this study investigated the relationship between participation in different extracurricular activities and depressive symptoms among Chinese early adolescents, and the moderating role of gender and family economic status. Results indicated that time spent completing homework, attending extracurricular tutoring, and playing online games after school was positively related to students’ depressive symptoms, whereas time spent on participating in physical exercise was negatively associated with students’ depressive symptoms. Besides, the relationships between after-school activities participation and student depressive symptoms were moderated by gender and family economic status. The theoretical and practical implications for the arrangement of after-school activities for Chinese early adolescents are discussed.
... In addition, IA predisposes adolescents to higher levels of depression, suicidal ideation [19], and suicidal attempts due to the development of brain dysfunction: increased activity in the gyrus frontalis inferior of the right pars triangularis and the right pars opercularis [20]. These effects in young age can be quite alarming given the high prevalence of IA among adolescents (12-18 years old) in different parts of the world: up to 19.1% of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents, 18.8% of Taiwanese high school students, 11% of Greek adolescents, 11.6% of Turkish adolescents, 36.7% of Italian adolescents, 18.2% of Chinese junior high school students, and 38% of Korean adolescents (reviewed in [21]). IA prevalence among university students is also high, albeit a bit lower than that noticed in school children: 6.4% of firstyear Chinese university students and 12.3% of Taiwanese university students (reviewed in [21]). ...
... These effects in young age can be quite alarming given the high prevalence of IA among adolescents (12-18 years old) in different parts of the world: up to 19.1% of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents, 18.8% of Taiwanese high school students, 11% of Greek adolescents, 11.6% of Turkish adolescents, 36.7% of Italian adolescents, 18.2% of Chinese junior high school students, and 38% of Korean adolescents (reviewed in [21]). IA prevalence among university students is also high, albeit a bit lower than that noticed in school children: 6.4% of firstyear Chinese university students and 12.3% of Taiwanese university students (reviewed in [21]). Among adolescents, the literature confirms positive association of IA with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [22], mood disorders [23], social anxiety [21,24], hostility, and multiple addictions (e.g., smoking, binge drinking, and illicit drugs) [21,23,24]. ...
... This may not be currently applicable because of the lack of calibrated measures of IA among pathological conditions such as EDs. Although IA is widespread among adolescents and university students, and it is associated with psychopathology, including EDs [21,65]; it is not clear whether IA conceptualization varies among clinically diagnosed patients with EDs and those without a formal diagnosis. ...
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Internet addiction (IA) is widespread, comorbid with other conditions, and commonly undetected, which may impede recovery. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is widely used to evaluate IA among healthy respondents, with less agreement on its dimensional structure. This study investigated the factor structure, invariance, predictive validity, criterion validity, and reliability of the IAT among Spanish women with eating disorders (EDs, N = 123), Chinese school children (N = 1072), and Malay/Chinese university students (N = 1119). In school children, four factors with eigen values > 1 explained 50.2% of the variance, with several items cross-loading on more than two factors and three items failing to load on any factor. Among 19 tested models, CFA revealed excellent fit of a unidimensional six-item IAT among ED women and university students (χ 2 (7) = 8.695, 35.038; p = 0.275, 0.001; CFI = 0.998, 981; TLI = 0.996, 0.960; RMSEA = 0.045, 0.060; SRMR = 0.0096, 0.0241). It was perfectly invariant across genders, academic grades, majors, internet use activities, nationalities (Malay vs. Chinese), and Malay/Chinese female university students vs. Spanish women with anorexia nervosa, albeit it was variant at the scalar level in tests involving other EDs, signifying increased tendency for IA in pathological overeating. The six-item IAT correlated with the effects of internet use on academic performance at a greater level than the original IAT (r = −0.106, p < 0.01 vs. r = −0.78, p < 0.05), indicating superior criterion validity. The six-item IAT is a robust and brief measure of IA in healthy and diseased individuals from different cultures.
... A study in South Korean children reported that ADHD was the most significant factor related to smartphone overuse [9]. Several biopsychosocial characteristics may contribute to smartphone overuse in children with ADHD, including intolerance to delayed rewards and boredom, a high tendency to give up and habituate repeated positive reinforcement, poor inhibitory control, and difficulty in social adaptation [10,11]. Longitudinal studies have discovered that smartphone overuse predicts low self-esteem [11], loneliness, and depression [12] in children. ...
... Consequently, children may naturally spend more time using their smartphones to relieve boredom and seek fun. Compared with children without ADHD, children with ADHD have the tendencies of intolerance to boredom, habituation with repeated positive reinforcement, and poor inhibitory control [10,11], which may exacerbate their smartphone use during their less structured daily lives in the COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, children might experience psychological stress when they faced the drastic changes in their daily lives during the pandemic and when they were worried about the the risk of contracting COVID-19; smartphone use is a common way for children to cope with psychological distress [13]. ...
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This study examined the difficulty encountered by caregivers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in managing children’s smartphone use during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the caregiver- and children-related factors that influence this difficulty. In total, 252 caregivers of children with ADHD were recruited into this study. The caregivers completed a research questionnaire to provide data regarding the difficulty they encountered in managing the smartphone use of children during the COVID-19 pandemic, their general mental health and parenting styles, and the ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms of the children they are caring for. The results indicated that almost 45% of the caregivers of children with ADHD sometimes or often found it difficult to manage the smartphone use of children with ADHD during the COVID-19 pandemic. For the caregivers, a short duration of education, poor general mental health, unaffectionate/uncaring and overprotective parenting styles, older children, and inattention and ODD symptoms were significantly associated with increased difficulty in managing their children’s smartphone use during the COVID-19 pandemic. On the basis of the relevant factors identified in this study, an intervention should be developed to enhance the skills of caregivers of children with ADHD with respect to the management of children’s smartphone use during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Many studies have documented the negative impact of IA on different aspects of adolescent development, such as sleeping quality (Tan et al., 2016), mental health (Ko et al., 2012), subjective well-being (Allen and Anderson, 2018), social development (Cerniglia et al., 2017), emotional development (Truzoli et al., 2020), and interpersonal relationship (Zeng et al., 2021). For adolescents, IA is particularly associated with low levels of school performance. ...
... Earlier research has focused on the distraction and divergence behaviors in learning among students with IA, which often directly lead to a decline in school performance. Besides, anxiety and depression have been found to mediate the adverse effect of IA on academic performance (Ko et al., 2012;Bai et al., 2020;Bu et al., 2021). Recent evidence suggests that IA may also interrupt students' psychological learning process and create problems in academic values and motivation (Reed and Reay, 2015;Truzoli et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Academic performance occupies an important role in adolescent development. It reflects adolescents’ cognitive ability and also shapes their academic and career paths. Students who are satisfied with their school performance tend to show higher self-esteem, confidence, and motivation. Previous research has suggested that students’ problem behaviors, such as Internet Addiction (IA), and academic values, including intrinsic and utility values, could predict satisfaction with academic performance. However, the influence of IA and academic values has not been thoroughly explored in Chinese contexts where the pressure for academic success is heavy. This study examined the relationships between IA, academic values (intrinsic and utility value), and satisfaction with academic performance using two waves of data collected from secondary school students in four cities in mainland China. The matched sample included a total of 2,648 Grade 7 or 8 students (57.1% were boys with a mean age of 13.1 years at Wave 1). Participants completed the same questionnaire containing validated measures at both waves with a 1-year interval. In line with the hypotheses, multiple regression analyses showed that Wave 1 IA was a significant negative predictor of Wave 2 intrinsic value, utility value, and satisfaction with academic performance and their changes. Results of mediation analyses revealed that only intrinsic value, but not utility value, positively predicted satisfaction with academic performance. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses also showed similar findings. Two observations are concluded from the present findings: IA impaired students’ intrinsic value, utility value, and perceived satisfaction with academic performance; two aspects of academic values demonstrated different influences on satisfaction with academic performance. These findings provide implications for the promotion of academic satisfaction experienced by students and the prevention of negative effects of IA.
... This addictive picture has more commonly been called Internet Addiction (IA) or Troublesome Internet Use (Vally et al., 2020). Although the abusive use of the Internet is not officially recognized as a disorder by the medical community, symptoms of this problem have been described by professionals from different areas (Ebert et al., 2015;Ko et al., 2012;Kuss et al., 2014). ...
... Furthermore, it was observed that depressive symptoms contribute to the increase in the prevalence of IA in the sample. Other studies carried out also with university students, consider this type of symptom as a factor associated with IA (Demir & Kutlu, 2016;Ko, et al., 2012), indicating that depression is a predictor of IA (Dalbudak & Evren, 2014). Some authors report that depressive symptoms can be generated by the excessive use of the internet, among the reasons being the frustration generated by the difficulty in controlling the use and the losses in social and professional spheres (Ding et al., 2016). ...
Article
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The increasing availability of the Internet, although with many positive effects for most, has triggered addictive effects for part of the population. They experience social isolation due to Internet overuse and, when deprived of it, they feel anxiety, fissure, and psychomotor agitation. This study investigated associations among Internet addiction, demographic and cognitive variables, such as impulsivity, aggression, and depressive and/or anxiety symptoms. In this study, 1,485 young adults (67.9% women) were assessed using four psychological instruments. It was found that 19.1% of the participants presented a moderate or severe internet addiction, with men having a higher prevalence (45.0%). The risk population also included individuals who use the Internet for gaming and residents of the Northeastern region of Brazil. Moreover, a higher index of motor or attentional impulsivity, or more depressive symptoms, seems to increase the prevalence of Internet Addiction, requiring greater attention in preventive strategies.
... Hence, this platform may serve as a more ecological space to explore attentional patterns among depressed individuals. Moreover, research on usage of news websites in depression has shown that depressed individuals tend to use the internet more frequently compared with non-depressed individuals (Ha et al., 2006;Ko et al., 2009;Ko et al., 2012;Young and Rogers, 1998), and to report higher levels of negative emotions and lower levels of positive emotions after watching the news (Potts and Sanchez, 1994). Research has also found an association between depressive symptoms and consumption of negative news (Dutta-Bergman, 2005;Olagoke et al., 2020). ...
... However, the present study extends previous research by increasing ecological validity. Specifically, while past research has mainly used prototypical stimuli (i.e., co-presented contrasting emotional faces or pictures), with no real-world contexts for their presentation, lowering the ecological validity of emergent findings (Suslow et al., 2020), here we used a more ecological sound taskusing an internet news website, which has been shown to be especially relevant to depression (Ha et al., 2006;Ko et al., 2009;Ko et al., 2012;Young and Rogers, 1998). Indeed, the importance of ecological validity in attentional research has been specifically emphasized (Elias et al., 2021;Richards et al., 2014), highlighting the need to use visual displays better resembling real-world settings. ...
Article
Background Eye-tracking-based attention research has shown attentional biases toward dysphoric and away from positive stimuli in depression. However, most research used prototypical stimuli (co-presented contrasting emotional faces/pictures), less reflective of real-life situations. The current study addressed this limitation by examining participants' attentional allocation patterns while freely viewing a news website containing dysphoric and positive news articles. Methods Participants with high levels of depression (HD; n = 30) and with minimal levels of depression (MD; n = 30) freely viewed a fictitious news website for 3.5 min, containing six articles (picture + text) with dysphoric content and six with positive content. Gaze patterns on corresponding areas of interest (AOIs) were compared. Following the task, participants rated each article's valence, authenticity, and interest. Results Compared to MD participants, HD participants spent more time dwelling on dysphoric articles and less time dwelling on positive articles. Within group analyses showed that while HD participants spent more time dwelling on dysphoric compared to positive articles, MD participants showed no preference, allocating their attention equally to both article types. Echoing within-group gaze patterns, HD participants rated the dysphoric articles as being more interesting than the positive articles, while MD participants rated both types of articles as being equally interesting. Conclusion Attentional biases in depression were also evident when using a more ecologically valid task such as viewing a news website, manifesting as increase attention allocation to dysphoric over positive content. This attention pattern may be related to corresponding differences in the level of interest participants found in each article type.
... It is considered as one of the most common psychological conditions [11]. Evidence revealed that Internet addiction and depression among adolescents is likely to form a vicious circle, that depressed adolescents would have excessive Internet use as a means of alleviating their negative mood, while negative consequences of such excessive use (e.g., social isolation) would further intensify depressive symptoms [12]. Social support is a basic psychological need that contributes to personal health [13]. ...
... As suggested, a score of 10 or above was classified as clinically relevant depressive symptoms [22]. In order to further understand the hierarchical relationship between depressive symptoms and IGD, we further divided total score into three levels: mild risk (score ranging 0-9), moderate risk (score ranging [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19] and high risk (score ranging [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. The scale showed good internal reliability in the present study (Cronbach's α = 0.65). ...
Article
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Background This study aimed to evaluate the presence of symptoms of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and examined associations between IGD and depressive symptoms, family and peer support among male college students in Nanchong, China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2533 male students in three colleges. Background characteristics, depressive symptoms, family and peer support and IGD information were collected. Binary logistic regression was performed to access the relationship between variables and IGD. PROCESS macro was used to examine the mediation analysis of family and peer support on the relationship between depressive symptoms and IGD. Results The estimated presence of symptoms of IGD was 11.6%. The most commonly endorsed items were escapism, continuation and preoccupation both among total participates and the IGD group. In the binary logistic regression, general expenditure per month, depressive symptoms, and family and peer support revealed their significance in associations with IGD. Adjusted for the significant background variable, depressive symptoms and family and peer support remained significance. Additionally, family and peer support would attenuate the relationship between depressive symptoms and IGD. Conclusions This study found that one in ten male college students reported clinically significant IGD symptoms, which indicate that IGD is an important public health problem in Nanchong, China.
... General health, self-esteem, and internet addiction Recent evidence has shown the relationship of general health (i.e., a state of physical, mental, and social well-being; not merely the absence of disease or infirmity) and self-esteem (i.e., an individual's subjective evaluation of their own worth) with Internet addiction severity. These findings have indicated that people with poor general health and low self-esteem spend more time on social networking sites than other people (Bahrainian et al., 2014;Bidi, Namdari-Pejman, Kareshki & Ahmadnia, 2012;Kawyannejad, Mirzaei, Valinejadi et al., 2019;Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen & Chen, 2012;Mann, Hosman, Schaalma & De Vries, 2004;Mei et al., 2016;Yao et al., 2014;Younes, Halawi, Jabbour et al., 2016). In fact, the Internet is a refuge that allows these people to have more control over impression management and self-presentation and satisfy their need to belong (Kandell, 1998;Niemz, Griffiths & Banyard, 2005). ...
Article
This research aimed to explore the gender‐related differences in Internet addiction levels, the associated factors behind Internet addiction, and the mediating roles of general health and self‐esteem in the relationship between personality traits and Internet addiction among college students. A total of 318 college students in Iran participating in this study completed sociodemographic information form and self‐report measures of Internet addiction, personality traits, general health, and self‐esteem. The results showed higher frequencies of low and moderate–severe levels of addiction among female and male students, respectively. Further, younger age, male gender, singleness, high scores on neuroticism, poor general health, and low self‐esteem might be linked to Internet addiction. The overall hypothesis that general health and self‐esteem mediated the effect of neuroticism on Internet addiction was also supported. Our findings highlighted the necessity of evaluating general health and self‐esteem among Internet‐addicted students. Further, these variables can be targeted by psychiatrists and psychologists for effective cognitive‐behavioral therapy among Internet‐addicted students.
... Besides, the association of IA with psychiatric disorders is often documented by numerous studies, mainly using adolescents and young adult samples. Several systematic and meta-analytic studies demonstrate that IA is correlated with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive and substance use disorders [28][29][30]. In addition to the adverse association with sleep and psychiatric disorders, IA may affect physical health because of its association with unhealthy lifestyles such as poor diets [31], physical inactivity, drinking [32], and smoking [11]. ...
Article
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Background Internet Addiction (IA) is often shown to be associated with health issues, but no study explicitly examined a possible gradient in the association between different levels of IA and health. This study aimed to examine if the levels of IA had a graded relationship with poor sleep quality, psychological distress, and self-rated health among university students in Bangladesh. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 625 students from six universities/colleges responded to an online survey that contained measures of internet addiction test (IAT), general health questionnaire (GHQ-12), sleep quality, and self-rated health. Modified Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate the adjusted risk ratios (RR) and confidence intervals (CI) of the associations between IA and health outcomes. Results The IA levels were associated with each of the three health outcomes in a linear fashion. Compared to the lowest IA quintile, the highest quintile remained associated with an increased risk of poor-quality sleeping (RR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.48), psychological distress (RR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.55, 2.82), and worse self-rated health (RR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96) after adjusting for socio-demographic covariates. There were also dose-response associations between IAT z-scores and health outcomes. The association between IAT z-scores and psychological distress was significantly stronger in males compared to females (p-value for interaction<0.05). Conclusions The study found strong gradients between levels of addiction to internet and health outcomes, suggesting that increased health risks may exist even at lower levels of internet addiction. The findings highlight the need for departure of current research from a focus on the classic dichotomy of problematic versus not problematic internet use and a move toward recognizing the potential hierarchical effects of IA on health.
... In addition, social networking sites have gained substantial popularity and have become a dominant daily social practice, which might accelerate internet use to a great extent [6]. Also, IA is associated with psychosocial problems, including poor academic performance, poor parental-child relationships, physical and mental health problems, withdrawal from daily life, hostility, and aggressiveness [7]. The attention of researchers has focused on the treatment of internet addiction rather than on prevention. ...
Article
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Background: Increasingly usage of computer technology and widespread Internet dominance has faced many people, particularly university students, and its extreme usage results in mental and psychological disorders. College students are believed to be at high risk with a marked increase in their internet usage worldwide. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the prevalence of internet addiction among university students and determine its impact on life quality. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a multistage sample of 300 Zagazig university students. A self-administered Arabic semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data between September and November 2019. Results: A total of 235 university students had internet addiction versus 65 students with average internet use. Severe internet addition was only detected among 2.3% of university students. Decreased family time was significantly higher among students with abnormal internet use than those with regular use (51.9% versus 20%, respectively). Worse social life was mainly related to internet addiction than normal users (37% versus 13.8%). Parent conflicts increased with spending a lot of time on the internet and decreased significantly when students turned towards regular use (11.1% versus 0% respectively). There were statistically significant relations between abnormal internet use and some physical and psychopathological problems. Conclusion: Internet addiction is a prevalent problem among university students. It harmed university students' health's social, physical, and mental aspects.
... However, misusing the Internet may lead to multiple adverse outcomes. Internet addiction (IA) refers to excessive Internet use, causing damage and distress to individuals, occupation, and society (Kato et al., 2020;Ko et al., 2012). Many studies have shown that IA can harm people's physical and mental well-being, such as depression, anxiety, and social withdrawal (Cerniglia et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents has become a major problem nowadays. Previous studies have found the association between childhood trauma and Internet addiction. There is evidence that coping styles may play a mediating role in this association, but related studies are still limited. This study aims to investigate the association between childhood trauma and Internet addiction among Chinese adolescents and whether coping styles mediate this association. A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescents’ Mental and Behavioral Well-being Research (Registration No. ChiCTR1900022032). A multi-stage random cluster sampling was adopted to recruit a total of 1, 956 first-grade middle school students from ten high schools in Guangzhou. Demographic characteristics, childhood trauma, Internet addiction, and coping styles were measured. After controlling for sex, grade, household socioeconomic status, one child or not, living arrangement, family relation, smoking and drinking, multivariable linear regression models showed that physical abuse (unstandardized β estimate = 0.846, 95% CI = 0.615 ~ 1.076), emotional abuse (unstandardized β estimate = 0.997, 95% CI = 0.843 ~ 1.151), emotional neglect (unstandardized β estimate = 0.218, 95% CI = 0.099 ~ 0.338) and sexual abuse (unstandardized β estimate = 1.454, 95% CI = 1.065 ~ 1.844) were positively associated with IA. Further analyses showed that negative coping styles partially mediated the association between physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and IA among all the participants. Adolescents with childhood traumatic experiences may have a higher risk for Internet addiction, and negative coping styles may play a mediating role. Attention should be paid to adolescents with childhood traumatic experiences, especially those possessing negative coping styles.
... Study shows that students with internet addiction are likely to suffer from ADHD symptoms than from other psychiatric disorder. But between ADHD symptoms and internet addiction link is not confirmed yet [14,15,6,17,18,19] . ...
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Background: Digital technology is a source of information, a source of entertainment, and a platform for social interaction and making new friends. Besides, researchers found from their research that it causes a bad effect on our health, especially on our brain health due to excessive use of digital gadgets. Aim: Effect of digital technology on our brain health. Materials and Methods: The data is collected from pub med/Medline, the Google scholar. Result: After reviewing many research papers, we can say that digital technology has both its own pros and cons; we have to use digital technology in a controlled way to reduce its harmful effect on brain health. Conclusion: We discussed both the good and bad effects of digital technology on our brain health but we have to study this topic on the basis of other aspects also like its effect after COVID-19 pandemic, effect on GenZ generation, etc. to come up with clearer results, than what we have now.
... İnternet bağımlılığında, madde kullanım bozuklukları başta olmak üzere, duygu durum bozuklukları, anksiyete bozuklukları ve dikkat eksikliği ve hiperaktivite bozukluğu (DEHB) gibi psikiyatrik bozuklukların eş tanı oranı yüksektir. Ancak birincil hastalığın internet bağımlılığı mı olduğu, bu psikiyatrik bozuklukların internet bağımlılığına mı neden olduğu, ya da ortak bir etiyolojik risk faktörünün bu bozuklukların tümüne yatkınlık mı oluşturduğu soruları henüz yanıtlanmamıştır (13). Ko ve arkadaşları, madde kullanımı olan ergenlerin internet bağımlılığı olmasının daha muhtemel olduğunu, internet bağımlılığı veya madde kullanımı olan ergenlerin yüksek yenilik arayışı ve düşük ödül bağımlılığı olmak üzere ortak kişilik özelliklerini paylaştığını, bununla birlikte internet bağımlılığı olan ergenlerde madde kullanımı olanlarda düşük olan zarardan kaçınma özelliğinin yüksek olduğunu bildirmiştir (14). ...
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Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, ergenlerde internet bağımlılığı ve ilişkili değişkenlerin gelecekteki alkol ve madde kullanımını yordayan yüksek riskli kişilik özellikleri ile ilişkisini incelemek ve internet bağımlılığı olan ve olmayan ergenleri bu kişilik özellikleri açısından karşılaştırmaktı. Yöntem: Yaş ortalaması 16,7 ve 161’i erkek olan 196 katılımcının yer aldığı çalışmanın deseni kesitseldi. Değerlendirme, bir demografik form ile Madde Kullanım Risk Profili Ölçeği (MKRPÖ) ve Bağımlılık Profil İndeksi İnternet Bağımlılığı Formu (BAPİNT) olmak üzere ilaveten iki öz-bildirim ölçeğini içerdi. Bulgular: BAPİNT aşerme skorları ile MKRPÖ dürtüsellik skorları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu, ayrıca BAPİNT yaşama etki skorları ile MKRPÖ anksiyete duyarlılığı skorları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu saptandı. Katılımcıların %31,1’inde (n=61)BAPİNT aracılığıyla ölçeğe dayalı olarak internet bağımlılığı saptandı, BAPİNT skoru internet bağımlılığı düzeyinde olan ve olmayan ergenler arasında bu kişilik özellikleri açısından istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılıklar saptanmadı. Sonuç: Ergenlerde internet kullanımı değerlendirilirken dürtüsellik ve anksiyete duyarlılığının taranması ve müdahale edilmesi ergenleri internet bağımlılığına karşı koruyabilir. Anahtar kelimeler: Ergenler, internet bağımlılığı, dürtüsellik, anksiyete, aşerme (PDF) Ergenlerden Oluşan bir Klinik Örneklemde Dürtüsellik ile İnternet Bağımlılığı Aşermesi Arasındaki İlişki. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/359629596_Ergenlerden_Olusan_bir_Klinik_Orneklemde_Durtusellik_ile_Internet_Bagimliligi_Asermesi_Arasindaki_Iliski [accessed Apr 19 2022].
... Negative personality traits and emotions, such as high boredom, loneliness, social anxiety, and self-isolation, all have significant effects on the occurrence of Internet dependence [34,35]. In the research on personality characteristics, mental health, and Internet dependence of college students, it is also found that there was a significant relationship between the loneliness or other negative emotional fluctuation and Internet dependence [36]. Since then, these relationships have been confirmed by regression analysis, and the depression is a predictor of Internet dependence [37]. ...
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With the explosive development of modern technology, Internet dependence has become an important hindrance to normal use of the Internet. The influence of the family environment and individual perception has gradually emerged in practice, while the theoretical research is still insufficient yet. Therefore, to clarify the specific influence mechanism between them, we divided family stress into two dimensions in this study, which are behavioral stress and emotional stress. Furthermore, combined with individual loneliness, a theoretical framework of the mediating effect is constructed to confirm the influence of family stress on Internet dependence and explore its action path and mechanism. Based on the data of CGSS2017, the empirical research shows that both behavioral and emotional stress from family can significantly increase the degree of Internet dependence of individuals and individual loneliness plays a partial mediating role between family stress and degree of Internet dependence. The results of this study provide powerful theoretical proof for practical experience and also provide a possible way of solving problems with Internet dependence in practice.
... A huge number of studies have found associations of PUI with mental disorders or conditions. In review studies, this has been confirmed for depression, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and hostility/aggression [26,27]. Findings for IGD are quite similar [28 ,29]. ...
Article
A growing number of scientists investigate possible negative side-effects of digital technology. Problematic usage of the Internet (PUI) covers addictive, hazardous, harmful and unsafe use. The present paper scrutinizes what we actually know about the costs arising from PUI. It becomes apparent that PUI is related to mental and physical health, social functioning, productivity loss, brain development, and unsafe use associated with accidents. This results in significant burden for a growing number of persons afflicted and also economically for society. Currently, it is unclear how much costs exactly arise due to the broad conditions related to digital technology use and insufficient data. A comprehensive approach on assessing the cost burden of PUI is outlined and methodological requirements are described.
... The disturbances of digestive system among students may be due to the fact that the gastrointestinal tract complains are abundant and may lead students to find traditional methods in the Internet to overcome these symptoms, such as natural herbs and others. According to (Ko et al., 2012) Internet addiction has attracted increasing coverage in the popular media among researchers and this attention has paralleled the growth in computer use and Internet access. Mano, (2015) founded in his study that that accessing online health information provides generalized information that does not necessarily fit the indivudual's medical condition, whereas the latter may provide a pivotal leverage for the prevention of healthrelated implications. ...
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Background: University students are greatly susceptible to internet addiction; appropriate interventions should be taken to forestall possible impact of Internet addiction on students. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of internet addiction and its related risk factors among faculties of nursing students at El Fayuom and Dammam universities. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional survey designed in view of a self-administered questionnaire directed to the 300 undergraduate nursing students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the following data: Socio-demographic data, History of (Mental Health Status, Psychological or Behavioral Disorder, student Physical Illness, Family Physical Illness and Psychiatric Illness) and Arabic version of Young internet addiction test. Results: About half of the students in total sample were ranked at mild level of internet addiction. Most of the students, especially the Egyptians, were suffering from anxiety and stress as well as used internet more than Saudi Arabia students. There was positive correlation between internet addiction and disturbances of digestive system. Recommendation: Continuous screening for Internet addiction throughout the course of students' study. Proper caring like stress management should be needed for those internet-addicted students.
... Our study found that the anxiety level of the participants increased over the period of six weeks with the increase of social media addiction, which is in consonance with a past study from Turkey [44], which revealed that University students' social anxiety and happiness significantly forecast their addiction to social media. It is also consistent with several other previous studies [45][46][47]. This finding may be attributed to the fact that people who communicate difficulties in social environments and opt to create this kind of social interaction by the use of internet tools, portray characteristics of social anxiety [48]. ...
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Social media addiction has attracted the attention of researchers especially during the COVID era because negative emotions generated from the pandemic may have increased social media addiction. The present study aimed to investigate the role of negative emotions and social media addiction on health problems during and after the COVID lockdown. A survey was conducted with 2926 participants aged between 25 and 45 years. The data collection period was between 2nd September and 13th October 2020. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling was conducted for data analysis by controlling the respondents' working time, leisure time, gender, education, and age. Our study showed that social media addiction and time spent on social media impact health. Interestingly, while anxiety about COVID increased social media addiction, fear about COIVD reduced social media addiction. Also, long working hours contributed most to people’s health issues, and its impact on social media addiction and hours was much higher than negative emotions, where males faced more health challenges than females. The impacts of negative emotions generated by the COVID on social media addiction and health issues should be reconsidered. Government and employers' control of people's working time stress should prioritize solving social media addiction-related issues.
... Still, research into the use of digital technology and the mental health of children is not conclusive in various findings. Available studies have documented that children and adolescents who are addicted and overuse of digital technology have low self-esteem (Kagan, 2016), mental disorders (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, Chen, 2012), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Weinstein, Yaacov, Manning, Danon, & Weizman, 2015;Mohamed & Bernouss,2019), depression (Morrison & Gore, 2010;Young, 1998), anxiety ( Mood disorder) (Vidyachathoth, Kumar, & Pai, 2014), locus of control (Rotsztein, 2003), self-regulations (LaRose, Lin, & Eastin, 2009), Psychological well-being (Kim, LaRose, & Peng, 2009;Mohamed & Bernouss,2019), or that mental health is negatively affected by sleep loss or withdrawal due to high levels of digital use (Hokby et al., 2016;Van der Schuur et al., 2019;Abbey, Walter, & Frank, 2010;Lam, 2014)), to name just a few. In a study of 2,114 students diagnosed with IA using a self-report questionnaire documented that individuals with IA had higher attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, depressive disorders, social phobia, and hostility particularly among male adolescents (Yen, Ko, Yen, HY, & MJ, 2007). ...
... Laconi et al. (2017) found that depressive symptoms were significant predictors of IGD scores. Excessive IGD is often described as a secondary symptom of a variety of major psychological disorders such as depression (Ko et al., 2012). In some studies, IGD and other Internet addiction behaviors were regarded as emotional regulation mechanisms, including the regulation of depression (Yen et al., 2007). ...
Article
While video games are one of the most common online entertainment activities, Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in adolescents is a critical issue that has become a widely raised public concern. This one-year longitudinal study examined the reciprocal associations between shyness, depression, and IGD symptoms in a sample of Chinese adolescents. A fully cross-lagged panel design was used, in which shyness, depression, and IGD symptoms were assessed at two time points with an interval of one year (T1 and T2). A total of 1,047 junior high school students (504 boys; 543 girls; mean age = 12.45 years) participated in the study. Cross-lagged analysis results indicated a significant positive correlation between shyness, depression, and IGD symptoms, as well as a dynamic and bidirectional relationship between them. Specifically, T1 shyness positively predicted T2 depression symptoms (β = 0.167, p < 0.001), T1 depression symptoms positively predicted T2 shyness (β = 0.141, p < 0.01), and T1 IGD symptoms positively predicted T2 depression symptoms (β = 0.073, p < 0.05). In addition to these findings, gender differences were identified in shyness (T1 and T2), IGD symptoms (T1 and T2), and depression symptoms (T2). The results also indicated that shyness and symptoms of depression could significantly positively predict each other over time, and IGD symptoms could significantly predict depression symptoms. However, depression symptoms could not significantly predict IGD symptoms over the one-year study period, and there was no significant two-way prediction between shyness and IGD symptoms. Thus, this study reveals possible reciprocal associations between shyness, depression, and IGD symptoms in Chinese adolescents and provides insights and suggestions for reducing online gaming addiction among adolescents from the perspective of shyness and depression.
... This study similar to previous researches (Ahmed, 2017;Sung et al., 2015;Wheeler, 2015) found that binge-watching behavior is related to increased emotional problems, conduct problems, cognitive problems, and DSM-IV-Inattentive scores. Much research has already been done on the relationship among smartphone and tablet use, Internet use, and comorbid psychiatric disorders in adolescents (Ko et al., 2009;Ko et al., 2012;Park et al., 2013). However, the majority of studies related to binge-watching were in the adult population, and the number of studies for adolescents are limited. ...
Article
This study aims to investigate the relationship between binge-watching addiction and family, emotional, conduct, cognitive and anger control problems, hyperactivity, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV)–ADHD Index, DSM-IV–Inattention, and DSM-IV–Hyperactivity Impulsivity in a large sample of healthy Turkish adolescents. The association between binge-watching behavior addiction and mood disorders in healthy adolescents was examined in this cross-sectional study conducted in Turkey. Participants completed both measures, The Binge-Watching Addiction Questionnaire and The Conners-Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. An online survey of 189 adolescents was conducted. One hundred fourteen subjects (60.3%) were categorized into the binge-watcher group. Results showed important positive associations between binge-watching behavior and emotional, conduct, cognitive problems, and DSM-IV–Inattention. The conducted analysis showed an important association between high frequency of binge-watching and emotional problems (p < 0.001), conduct problems (p = 0.012), cognitive problems (p = 0.001), and inattention (p < 0.001). These findings contributed to our comprehension of adolescents’ psychological correlates of television viewing behavior. Further researches on the relationship between extreme binge-watching and psychiatric disorders of adolescents are recommended.
... are the two sites where short stories are loaded. Cyber short stories are full of weaknesses, especially in the often interrupted and unfinished narrative, and the writing of characters and settings that are not optimal is the final result of Kusumarwanti's study (Ko, C. H., 2012). ...
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The paper analysis focuses on information technology, which is rapidly developing in Indonesia, creating a new space for the world of literature. The cyber-world that emphasizes the visual senses brings up a wide variety of works into something new to see (Libin, 2005). Community "fiction" forms its image by designing a new genre that seeks to move beyond space. This unique sensibility that this community can create makes people have a taste for literary works that are poured through the post-structuralist paradigm of the mode of information (Mark Poster). With the descriptive method in this paper, it is hoped that the readers will understand the movement of the Fiksimini community in the social networking and website space. The various images in today's electronic media result from the latest cultural actualization that creates a natural sensibility of the unreality (Hobbs, 2013).
... According to a recent study by Ko et al. [24], functional impairments such as poor academic performance and difficulties interacting with family and peers should be included in the diagnosis of Internet addiction, in addition to symptoms of pre-occupation, tolerance, withdrawal, and impairment of control. According to Ching and Tung [25], there is a link between the amount of hours spent online per week and internet addiction. ...
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Objective: The extreme and constant use of internet use has been reported to be associated with depression and other adverse physical health conditions. The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between the frequency of internet usage among the university students of Visakhapatnam, India, and their health problems and depression levels. Methods: The study sample consists of 100 university students studying at a university in Visakhapatnam, India. Distribution of the sample by gender was 43 males and 50 females. Questionnaires were administered to students in groups, in a class environment, by the author. Participation was voluntary. In total, 100 students participated in this study. Seven of them had to be excluded for not responding properly to all questionnaires, so the final sample consisted of 93 participants. Results: The results indicate a significant association between depression and the intense internet usage (>5–7 h/daily), with Chi-square value 23.80 and p<0.01. Furthermore, as the internet usage increases, there is a significant rise in systolic blood pressure with F=3.74 and p<0.05. Conclusion: This study indicates that intense internet usage is definitely leading to mental health problems like depression and also other physical health issues like increased blood pressure.
... We reviewed a broad literature focusing on how digital technology has (and has not) affected daily life, yet the extent of these changes remains difficult to ascertain. Measures of time use are often unreliable (Andreassen, 2015;Ernala et al., 2020;Griffiths, 2013;Juster et al., 2003;Ko et al., 2012;Salmela-Aro et al., 2017). Time diaries, which ask participants about their time use during a specific day, are reliable but challenging to collect and of limited availability (Juster et al., 2003). ...
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Digital and computational demography explores demography in relation to the digital revolution – the rapid technological improvements in digitized information storage, computational power and the spread of the internet and mobile technologies since the turn of the new millennium. We cover three ways in which the digital revolution touches upon demography. First, we discuss how digital technologies, through their impacts on daily lives and in shifting how individuals access information, communicate and access services, have implications for demographic outcomes linked to health and mortality, fertility and family, and migration. Second, we discuss how the digital revolution has created a wide range of new data sources such as digital trace and geospatial data that can be repurposed for demographic research, and enabled respondent recruitment across the world via the internet and social media. Third, we discuss how improvements in computational power have facilitated the use of computational methods such as microsimulation and agent-based modelling as well as machine learning techniques for demographic applications. We conclude by discussing future opportunities and challenges for digital demography.
... are the two sites where short stories are loaded. Cyber short stories are full of weaknesses, especially in the often interrupted and unfinished narrative, and the writing of characters and settings that are not optimal is the final result of Kusumarwanti's study (Ko, C. H., 2012). ...
Article
The paper analysis focuses on information technology, which is rapidly developing in Indonesia, creating a new space for the world of literature. The cyber-world that emphasizes the visual senses brings up a wide variety of works into something new to see (Libin, 2005). Community "fiction" forms its image by designing a new genre that seeks to move beyond space. This unique sensibility that this community can create makes people have a taste for literary works that are poured through the post-structuralist paradigm of the mode of information (Mark Poster). With the descriptive method in this paper, it is hoped that the readers will understand the movement of the Fiksimini community in the social networking and website space. The various images in today's electronic media result from the latest cultural actualization that creates a natural sensibility of the unreality
... are the two sites where short stories are loaded. Cyber short stories are full of weaknesses, especially in the often interrupted and unfinished narrative, and the writing of characters and settings that are not optimal is the final result of Kusumarwanti's study (Ko, C. H., 2012). ...
Article
The paper analysis focuses on information technology, which is rapidly developing in Indonesia, creating a new space for the world of literature. The cyber-world that emphasizes the visual senses brings up a wide variety of works into something new to see (Libin, 2005). Community "fiction" forms its image by designing a new genre that seeks to move beyond space. This unique sensibility that this community can create makes people have a taste for literary works that are poured through the post-structuralist paradigm of the mode of information (Mark Poster). With the descriptive method in this paper, it is hoped that the readers will understand the movement of the Fiksimini community in the social networking and website space. The various images in today's electronic media result from the latest cultural actualization that creates a natural sensibility of the unrealityThe paper analysis focuses on information technology, which is rapidly developing in Indonesia, creating a new space for the world of literature. The cyber-world that emphasizes the visual senses brings up a wide variety of works into something new to see (Libin, 2005). Community "fiction" forms its image by designing a new genre that seeks to move beyond space. This unique sensibility that this community can create makes people have a taste for literary works that are poured through the post-structuralist paradigm of the mode of information (Mark Poster). With the descriptive method in this paper, it is hoped that the readers will understand the movement of the Fiksimini community in the social networking and website space. The various images in today's electronic media result from the latest cultural actualization that creates a natural sensibility of the unreality
... Additional studies have explored the effects of problematic internet use and video game addictions on mental health, and cognitive and educational outcomes. Problematic internet use is defined as repetitive impairing behaviors, such as excessive video game playing, cybersex, online buying, streaming, social media use, and the inability to control the amount of time spent on the internet [8]. Problematic internet use is associated with decrements across a range of neuropsychological domains, irrespective of geographical location, supporting its cross-cultural and biological validity [9]. ...
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Introduction: Cognitive dysfunction is a hallmark feature of many psychiatric disorders. We aimed to study the prevalence and predictors of cognitive dysfunction (CD) among U.S. high school students and its association with time spent on digital devices. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey study using YRBSS 2019 data of U.S. high school students in grades 9–12. Cognitive dysfunction was defined by difficulties with remembering, concentrating, and making decisions due to emotional, physical, or mental problems. Digital screen time was described by daily time spent on TV, computers, tablets, and phone. We performed univariate and multivariable survey logistic regression analysis to identify the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction and its association with time spent on digital devices. Results: Out of 10,317 total participants, 3914 (37.9%) reported CD. The prevalence of CD was higher in females compared to males (46.0% vs. 29.9%). Compared to participants with no CD, participants with CD reported substance abuse, such as alcohol (35.8% vs. 26.6%), marijuana (28.3% vs. 17.6%), cigarette (8.1% vs. 4.7%), and illicit drugs (18.9% vs. 9.0%) and they reported a higher prevalence (p < 0.0001 for all substances). Participants who felt sad and hopeless (62.8 vs. 22.1%) reported a high prevalence of CD, whereas participants with adequate sleep reported low prevalence (15.7% vs. 25.6%). In a regression, daily video game/internet use for non-work-related activities for 4 h (aOR:1.27; p = 0.03) and ≥5 h (aOR:1.70; p < 0.0001) demonstrated higher odds of CD, compared to participants with no daily use. Female sex, substance use, and depressed mood were additional predictors of CD. Conclusion: The prevalence of CD is high in U.S. high-school students. Female sex, substance abuse, depressed mood, and excessive VG/PC use is associated with high odds of cognitive dysfunction. Further research is needed to explore the complex relationship between screen time and cognitive dysfunction.
... Regardless of diagnostic classification, both classifications report in several (cross-sectional) studies high comorbidity of PUI with other psychiatric disorders [1,5,20,40,102,123] 126,159]. Dysfunctional Internet and media use have grown to a global issue due to its invasiveness in various areas and emerged to an increasing health problem [15,56,69,74,105]. Although its existence and prevalence are well documented, little is known about the exact etiological components and the pathophysiology of PUI [145,73], and it is still unclear if PUI should be classified as a type of behavioral addiction [131,132] Figure 1). ...
Article
Problematic Internet use (PUI) has become of increasing interest in mental health. Despite the rising number of PUI in all ages, the exact underpinning etiology is still missing. There is increasing evidence that, in particular, genetic, environmental, and personality factors are involved in the development and maintenance of PUI. However, the neurobiological mechanism of PUI has not been yet extensively investigated, and still reports conflicting results. Previous studies have focused on candidate genes, mainly of the serotonergic, dopaminergic, or acetylcholinergic pathways known partly as risk factors in other substance-use disorders. This review focuses on preexisting literature on the genetic basis of PUI, and implications for future research approaches to fill the gap of its etiology. Understanding the exact etiology and potential genetic mechanism is the basis for a better understanding of PUI and future therapy implications.
... The Internet has become indispensable in teenagers' lives, but its excessive or inappropriate use also has undesirable consequences for young people, especially if we consider that they are more likely to develop a certain degree of Internet addiction than adults (Fineberg et al., 2018;Ko et al., 2012). Excessive use can lead to withdrawal and weaker social skills as well as mental health and family problems (O'Day & Heimberg, 2021;Song et al., 2019;Twenge, 2017). ...
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As children spend more and more time on electronic devices and social networks, there is a growing concern about the influence that these activities may have on their development and social well-being. In this context, the present research is aimed at analysing the influence that Internet use may have on 6 th grade primary school students’ academic performance in Spain. In order to do so, we have employed a methodological approach that combines econometric and interval multiobjective programming techniques, which has let us identify the traits and Internet use patterns that allow students to maximise their academic performance in terms of scores in four competences. Our results show that, while daily use of the Internet to listen to music or search for information about other topics of interest can favor the maximization of educational outcomes, the use of social networks should be limited as much as possible to avoid hindering the educational process.
... obsessive-compulsive symptoms and Internet addiction. Moreover, consistently with several studies conducted previously, even before the COVID-19 pandemic, higher scores in obsessive-compulsive symptoms and Internet addiction resulted associated with worse health anxiety (Fergus and Russell, 2016;Ivanova and Karabeliova, 2014), anxious-depressive symptoms (Batıgün et al., 2020;Hofmeijer-Sevink et al., 2018;Ko et al., 2012) and quality of life (Cheng and Li, 2014;Stengler-Wenzke et al., 2007;Tran et al., 2017). ...
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Since the global pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), online health information-seeking behaviors have notably increased. Cyberchondria can be a vulnerability factor for the worsening of anxiety-depressive symptoms and quality of life. The current study aims to understand the predictive effect of cyberchondria on health anxiety, anxiety, depression and quality of life considering the mediating effect of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and Internet addiction and the moderating effect of COVID anxiety. 572 Italian participants (66% female; Mean age = 34; SD = 15) took part in a cross-sectional online survey involving CSS-12, MOCQ-R, IAT, SHAI, HADS, WHOQoL-BREF and CAS. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and Internet addiction were found to partially mediate the cyberchondria-health anxiety and the cyberchondria-anxiety links and to totally mediate the cyberchondria-depression and the cyberchondria-quality of life links. COVID anxiety was found to moderate the relationship between cyberchondria and anxiety. The findings suggest that compulsivity may have a key role in the explanation of the underlying mechanisms of cyberchondria. Healthcare practitioners should provide additional support for individuals with cyberchondria. As such, cyberchondria is a contributing factor to the exacerbation of anxiety-depressive disorders and may impact on the quality of life.
... Furthermore PSMU has been linked to aggression, expression of anger, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (Ko et al., 2009;Ko et al., 2012;Ho et al., 2014;Okwaraji et al., 2015;Lee et al., 2018;Hartmann & Blaszczynski, 2018;Jeong et al., 2019), substance misuse across different youth populations (Liu et al., 2011;Anderson et al., 2017) as well as to FOMO and the need for touch Li et al., 2019;Arrivillaga et al., 2020). ...
Article
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This study examines the relationship of fear of missing out (FOMO) with heavy social networking among Turkish university students (aged 17 - 55). Factor analysis of FOMO scale led us to evaluate the construct under two dimensions as (1) fear of missing experience and (2) fear of missing activity. The results revealed that fear of missing activity increases social media intrusion while fear of missing experience is found to have no significant effect. The reverse relationship is also valid: an urge to use social media predicts fear of missing out (activity and experience). Fear of missing experience is associated with problematic social media use (PSMU) and a high desire to use social media.
... Recently, high levels of Internet overuse, which is considered a type of behavioral addiction, have been reported in university students [11]. Moreover, adolescents who engage in Internet overuse are at a high risk of serious psychological disorders such as depression [12]. ...
... Males has been repeatedly claimed to be a risk factor for Internet addiction (35,36). Serval previous investigations showed that males had a higher prevalence of mild and severe Internet addiction than females (37)(38)(39). The higher prevalence of Internet addiction in boy students may be due to less limitation and supervision from parents. ...
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Background and purpose: Virtual social networks (VSNs) are among the most popular communication paths that have become an integral part of most people's lives, including students. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of VSNs addiction and their related factors, and identify the patterns of addictive-related factors among the students in Kerman, Iran in 2019. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 students from Kerman University of Medical Sciences. The study instrument was a standardized questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, logistic regression models, and latent class analysis were used to analyze the data. The data were analyzed using SPSS26, Stata12 and WinLTA (v. 3.1) software. Results: 50% of the participants were male, staying in dormitory. The number of individuals in the levels of education in the four groups was equal. Around 0.5% of the students were addicted and 36.5% were at the risk of addiction to VSNs. The most commonly used VSNs was the Telegram (76.8%), and most students (28.8%) spent between 2-3 hours a day on VSNs. In the multivariate model, using 1-2 hours (AOR = 3.33, 95% CI: 1.07 - 10.19), 2-3 hours (AOR = 7.33, 95% CI: 2.50 - 21.52) and more than 3 hours a day (AOR = 18.54, 95% CI: 6.05 - 56.8) of VSNs were associated with an increased odds of being at the risk of VSNs addiction. The Latent Class Analysis showed that high-risk addictive factors including using Telegram for entertainment, providing accommodation in the dormitory, and having a graduate degree significantly influenced the classification. Conclusion: More than one-third of Kerman college students were found to be at the risk of VSNs addiction. Providing appropriate interventions including alternative activities as well as raising knowledge especially for undergraduate students is urgently needed.
... gibi çevrimiçi sosyal ağ sitelerine (Social Network Site (SNS)) aşinadır ve insanların büyük kısmı düzenli olarak bu sitelerden birini veya birkaçını kullanmaktadır (2). Ancak kişiler internet ile ilgili davranışları üzerindeki kontrollerini kaybettiklerinde ve kişilerin bu davranışları günlük yaşamlarında ve aile ilişkilerinde zorluklara neden olduğunda bağımlılıktan söz edilmeye başlanmaktadır (3). ...
Chapter
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Sosyal Medya Bağımlılığı ve Akıllı Telefon Bağımlılığı Hakkında Kitap Bölümü
... Compensatory Internet use theory proposes that individuals tend to use technology excessively to alleviate depression (Kardefelt-Winther, 2014). Psychiatric disorders contribute to or exacerbate the symptoms or course of addiction, and among clinical symptoms, depression is most closely related to Internet addiction (Ha et al., 2007;Ko et al., 2012). In a previous study of high school students, depression predicted the initiation and persistence of Internet addiction (Chang et al., 2014). ...
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Repeated outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) have forced people to shift most of their work and life activities from offline to online, leading to a growing problem of Internet dependence and even Internet addiction. However, the mechanism of the association between COVID‐19‐related intolerance of uncertainty (COVID‐19 IU) and Internet addiction during the second wave of COVID‐19 is still unclear. The current study explored the association between COVID‐19 IU and Internet addiction as mediated by depression and risk perception based on the Uncertainty‐Depression‐Perception‐Addiction model (UDPA). A total of 1,137 adult participants were recruited, and COVID‐19 IU, depression, risk perception, Internet addiction, and demographic variables were analyzed. The results showed that COVID‐19 IU was significantly and positively associated with Internet addiction and that this relationship was mediated in parallel by depression and risk perception. Our findings further extend the Interaction of Person‐Affect‐Cognition‐Execution (I‐PACE) model from the perspective of applicability in the unique context of COVID‐19. Furthermore, the study suggests that individuals could decrease their dependence on the Internet to prevent Internet addiction during the second wave of the pandemic through effective interventions that include lowering COVID‐19 IU, improving emotion regulation, and developing reasonable perceptions of risk.
... Recently, high levels of Internet overuse, which is considered a type of behavioral addiction, have been reported in university students [11]. Moreover, adolescents who engage in Internet overuse are at a high risk of serious psychological disorders such as depression [12]. ...
... Recently, high levels of Internet overuse, which is considered a type of behavioral addiction, have been reported in university students [11]. Moreover, adolescents who engage in Internet overuse are at a high risk of serious psychological disorders such as depression [12]. ...
... Recently, high levels of Internet overuse, which is considered a type of behavioral addiction, have been reported in university students [11]. Moreover, adolescents who engage in Internet overuse are at a high risk of serious psychological disorders such as depression [12]. ...
Article
Background: Good sleep quality and quantity are crucial for ensuring a successful academic life for university students. Stress is a part of university students' academic life. Internet addiction is particularly a problem among young adults and undergraduate students. Method: The study explored sleep patterns, stress management, and Internet use in 114 nursing students from a nursing college in Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, sleep patterns, stress management, and Internet use. Data were collected over two weeks at the beginning of the spring semester in 2018. Results: Results showed that only 16.3% of the students slept for ≥8 hours daily. The main cause of students' stress was exams (89.4%), and 38.5% used the Internet for >6 hours daily. Conclusions: Further studies are recommended to assess the correlation of university students' sleep patterns with academic performance, effects of different coping strategies to alleviate stress, and Internet addiction.
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This paper establishes a Kantian duty against screen overexposure. After defining screen exposure, I adopt a Kantian approach to its morality on the ground that Kant’s notion of duties to oneself easily captures wrongdoing in absence of harm or wrong to others. Then, I draw specifically on Kant’s ‘duties to oneself as an animal being’ to introduce a duty of self-government. This duty is based on the negative causal impact of the activities it regulates on a human being’s mental and physical powers, and, ultimately, on the moral employment of these powers. After doing so, I argue that the duty against screen overexposure is an instance of the duty of self-government. Finally, I consider some objections.
Article
Individuals with internet addiction (IA) show difficulties in emotion regulation. However, they could effectively employ emotion regulation strategies when instructed. We speculate that this discrepancy might be caused by maladaptive emotion regulation choices. Recent studies indicated that decreased activity of the left frontal cortex could be a neural marker of reappraisal use. To address this problem, individuals with IA ( n = 17, IA group) and healthy individuals ( n = 23, healthy control [HC] group) were required to choose an emotion regulation strategy between reappraisal and distraction to regulate their emotions varying in emotional intensity and valence. We also compared the resting state frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) of these 2 groups. The results replicated more choices of reappraisal in low- versus high-intensity emotional contexts across groups. More importantly, the IA group chose reappraisal less frequently compared with the HC group, irrespective of emotional intensity. Furthermore, we found individuals with IA have lower FAA than healthy controls, and FAA shows a positive correlation with the use of reappraisal. These findings suggest that IA alters individuals’ patterns of emotion regulation choice and impairs frontal activities, causing difficulties in emotion regulation.
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Human existence and behavior are continually changing, resulting in various difficulties. Addiction is one of these issues. The association between social anxiety, happiness, loneliness, and social media addiction is examined in this study among 438 Filipino college students. The Social Media Addiction Scale, a Social Anxiety Scale, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and the UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire were used to collect data. The findings indicated a correlation between students' degrees of social media addiction and their social anxiety and loneliness levels. On the other side, there was a negative correlation between students' degrees of social media addiction and their level of happiness.
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Представлены результаты пилотного исследования взаимосвязи индивидуально-психологических характеристик темперамента, проблемного использования Интернета и субъективного психологического благополучия, полученные на выборке (N = 90) московских подростков и молодежи 15 25 лет (М = 18,3. SD = 2,93. Мо = 16,00). Результаты согласуются с данными современных междисциплинарных исследований: некоторые индивидуально-психологические особенности структуры темперамента (temperament traits), как продукт сложного генотип-средового взаимодействия, можно рассматривать в качестве прогностических факторов, влияющих на формирование проблемного использования интернета и на субъективное восприятие психологического благополучия. Полученные корреляции между индивидуальными чертами темперамента (в сферах активности, аффективности и саморегуляции), проблемным использованием интернета и субъективным психологическим благополучием могут быть полезны при разработке рекомендаций «здорового» использования ресурсов интернета («healthy internet use») и для решения практических задач профилактики снижения физической активности у современных «цифровых» подростков.
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Unofficial reports have alerted that Tawjihi (high school) students in Jordan are experiencing high levels of depression with increasing suicidal ideations and attempts. The aims of this national study were to estimate the point prevalence of depressive symptoms among Tawjihi students in Jordan and to identify student characteristics associated with severity of depression. The study was conducted in collaboration with the Jordanian Ministry of Education. Data were collected using anonymous self-administered questionnaires. A total of 1208 Tawjihi students (51% females) completed and returned the questionnaires. About 12% reported having learning difficulties, and 3% received a psychiatric diagnosis. Almost 62% were studying 3–7 h per day, and 73% reported watching TV for less than an hour per day or not at all. Seemingly, 37% were using their mobiles for less than an hour per day or not at all. About 37% reported they were not performing any activity other than studying. About 25% of the sample reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms, while 19% had mild symptoms. The most prevalent moderate to severe symptom was crying (25.5%) followed by changes in sleep pattern (23%) and self-criticalness (22.7%). Suicidal thoughts or wishes presented in almost 6% of the sample. Depressive symptoms were significantly higher among students who were females, pursuing the literacy streams, having lower Grade Point Averages (GPAs), residing with families with lower monthly incomes, residing in rural regions, reporting a learning difficulty, reporting a psychiatric diagnosis, and spending more time with their mobiles and less time on TV. With the substantial lack of primary mental health services in the country, there is a need to proactively screen all Tawjihi students in Jordan for depression. Addressing depression among Tawjihi students requires considering all individual, family, social, and contextual risk factors that may lead to the rise in depressive symptoms.
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Sensation seeking (SS) is a motivational disposition that can drive the person to seek several experiences and stimulation, and avoid rest through activities such as playing computer or video games. It was assumed that SS could play a significant role in Problematic Internet Use (PIU), but this relation is controversial. More recently SS, together with hyperactivity and inattention in ADHD disorder, was supposed as self-regulatory attempt to create a stimulating environment in order to stabilize vigilance and avoid monotonous situations. Since the literature shows a significant incidence of Internet Addiction in ADHD, the aim of the study was to explore how these two risk factors, SS and ADHD symptoms, influence the occurrence of PIU in a community sample of adults. Method: A total of 147 voluntary participants (46% males, age range 18-60 years old) completed the Young'sInternet Addiction Test (IAT) for identifying normal or problematic users, the Need forStimulation test for measuring SS, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) Symptom Checklist. Results: The findings revealed that adults with high-ADHD symptoms resulted problematic users in higher percentage, reported significantly higher scores in SS and IAT questionnaires, with interference in many aspects of their life. In a regression procedure ADHD symptoms and SS explained 32.8% of variance as predictors of PIU. Discussion and Conclusion: These preliminary findings support the role of ADHD and SS as risk factors in PIU, but they also suggest further studies for comprehending the interactions between ADHD clinical characteristics and Internet overuse.
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Abstract The increasing use of the internet and its impact on academic accomplishment necessitates a closer look at psychological factors such as academic self-concept. This study's objective is to analyze if internet addiction has a stabilizing impact on the link between learners' self and school performance in mathematics. All 358 participants in the study were taken from colleges located in Islamabad of both sexes (Male 226, Female 132, aged 14-18 years). Academic Self-Concept Scale (Reynolds, 1988), was used to measure an academic self concept while Internet dependence was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT; Young, 1998).Internet addiction has been found to have a negative correlation with academic achievement (r = -.205, p<.01).The relationship between academic attainment and scholastic self awareness, on the other hand, was non-significant. Despite the fact that internet addiction has the potential to profoundly predict student excellence, it had no measurable effect on the link between Scholastic Identity and academic achievement. Statistically meaningful (p<.05) effect of internet addiction was observed in the association between academic self concept and academic achievement at the mean level and when it was one standard deviation above the mean, as demonstrated by the basic slope analysis. However, at a standard deviation below that, the effect of internet addiction was not shown to be significant. With t (356) = 2.39, P< .05, the research discovered that male and female students had considerably varied learning achievement, with female students having a major advantage. While internet addiction and academic self-concept differed between males and females, the differences were not substantial. The outcomes of this research emphasise the importance of developing a positive feeling of one's own academic self concept and making effective use of the internet. Instructors may place more emphasis on students' academic self-concept and legitimate use of the internet in order to enhance academic achievement.
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Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which the growth of the central nervous system is impaired. Aim: The purpose of the present study was investigating the structural relation between depression and anxiety with symptoms of adult ADHD, according to the meditative role of emotion regulation and cognitive attention deficit. Method: This study was a descriptive correlational. The statistical population included all students at Universities of Tehran, Iran in 2019. One hundred and forty-four students of Kharazami University were participated as a sample group via convenience sampling. Instruments include CERQ (2006), BDI (1996), BAI (1988), CAARS (1999), and IVA (1994). Data were evaluated and analyzed with the use of Pearson’s correlation and Structural Equation Model (SEM) by SPSS-23 and LISREL. Results: Results showed that depression and anxiety symptom have significant direct and indirect relations with an adult ADHD symptom (p
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Introduction: The extensive use of the internet and its effect on our lives can no longer be overlooked. While the internet is a result of the rapid advancement of science and technology, its impact on students depends on how they use it. The present study identifies Internet usage patterns, nature of use, and Internet Addiction (IA) among India's undergraduate and postgraduate students and its consequences on their lives. Methods: This empirical examination uses the Multistage Sampling Method (MSM) and cross-sectional method. The structured questionnaire distributed (N=1,200) to ungraduated college students. We included at least ten institutes of every state in India and thirty participants from each institution in this study. Results: The study revealed that overuse of the internet is statistically significant with internet addiction concerning gender but not with age and education. Overuse of the internet strongly impacts IA. The study further investigates the relationship with the consequences of overuse of the internet with age, gender and education and found that genders significantly differ with the physical and psychological problem but not with a behavioural and relationship problem; level of education has a significant difference with physical and behavioural problem but not with relationship and psychological problems. Conclusion: Our investigation helps college, university or educational policymakers to frame good mental health policies or create programmes to reduce or constrain the adverse effect of overuse of the internet. The results show a compelling need to reduce the overuse of the internet (OI) by promoting psychological competence.
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Excessive gaming may be associated with sleep deprivation and self-harm. One active duty member committed self-injurious behavior to avoid work-related consequences. It was discovered that the patient participated in a video-gaming binge throughout an entire 72-hour weekend liberty. The patient experienced severe sleep deprivation to the point where he overslept and failed to report to work. He injured himself and fabricated a robbery and assault to avoid disciplinary consequences. Military health care providers should consider excessive gaming in patients presenting with sleep issues, self-harm, and disciplinary problems. As the prevalence of gaming increases, the military leadership should be aware that excessive gaming can degrade force readiness.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges for adolescents, who tended to experience more emotional instability, impulsivity, and aggressive behavior driven by the fear of infection and the uncertainty of network information. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between Internet addiction and aggressive behavior, and the mediating effects of depression and anxiety. There were differences in Internete addiction and aggressive behavior in gender, thus the moderating role of gender between them were explored. A total of 1148 middle school students were invited to complete the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Internet Addition Scale, the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) separately. The results suggested that 1) there was a significant positive correlation between Internet addiction and aggressive behavior; 2) anxiety, but not depression, mediated the effect of Internet addiction on aggressive behavior; 3) gender did not moderate the effect of Internet addiction on aggressive behavior. The practical implication of the current findings on boosting adolescents' mental health was discussed and further suggestions were provided.
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Background and aims: FoMO has been considered a predisposing factor toward excessive internet use, and a great deal of literature has investigated the link between FoMO and internet use. However, there is still a lack of cohesion in the literature. Methods: The current study have been conducted and reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Results: In the current systematic review and meta-analysis of 86 effect-sizes, representative of 55,134 participants (Meanage 5 22.07, SD 5 6.15, females 5 58.37%), we found that the strength of the trait FoMO- internet use association significantly varies from r 5 0.11 to r 5 0.63. In some populations, FoMO appears to increase with age and it is reverse in other populations. Facebook use was unrelated to FoMO in some populations, and higher FoMO was linked with stopping Instagram use for some individuals. The FoMO- internet use association was independent of their severity, as the interaction was not significant, and this association was neither linear nor curvilinear. The FoMO-internet use association does not appear to be associated with depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms or level of life satisfaction. The COVID-19 pandemic was the only significant moderator of the FoMO-internet use association, strengthening this relationship. Discussion and Conclusions: FoMO demonstrates a considerable role in internet use; however, there is no evidence of interaction or bi-directional association between the mentioned. Overall, we still don’t know what factors contribute to individuals exhibiting distinct patterns in the FoMO-internet use association.
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This paper reports the results from two waves of studies on the development of Chinese Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) and its revision (CIAS-R). Based upon the conception framework adapted from other traditional addiction disorders such like pathological gambling and substance addictions, the tendency of Internet addiction was presumably characterized with two aspects of behavioral manifestation, i.e., core symptoms and related problems. In study 1, the original items of the CIAS depicting core symptoms and related problems of the Internet addiction were thus generated through focused interview and derived from the diagnostic criteria of other well-defined addiction disorders. The CIAS, background questionnaire eliciting data on basic demographics, weekly on-line hours, habitual domains, and experience of Internet utilization were administered in a traditional paper and pencil manner to a random sample of students of National Taiwan University (N=1336) Factor analysis, correlation analysis, and t-test were utilized to analyze data. The results show that: The CIAS is an appealing and reliable test with satisfactory test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Correlation analyses yield significantly positive correlation of total scale and subscale scores of CIAS with weekly Internet hours, but not with experience of Internet utilization. Moreover, high-risk students show different attitudes toward Internet use and addiction from the normal. In study 2, the CIAS-R, with modification of item wording as well as addition and elimination of some items, were administered to another wave of random subjects at National Taiwan University (N=1975). Same procedure and analyses were applied. It results in a better factor structure in CIAS-R, with similarly satisfactory psychometric properties. Future research concerning scale revision as well as possible psychopathological approach to Internet addiction will be discussed accordingly.
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One's passion for the Internet can be healthy, pathologically addictive, or somewhere inbetween. Where a person falls on that continuum is determined by the cluster of needs that are being fulfilled by his or her Internet use and how the internet addresses those needs. This article suggests eight factors that can help clarify the healthy or unhealthy qualities of one's commitment to cyberspace activities, as well the effect of those activities on the person's underlying needs. It then explores the types of needs addressed by internet use. The 'integration principle' is proposed as a rule of thumb for assessing pathological and healthy Internet use.
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A reasons for Internet Use Questionnaire was developed to examine the relationship between internet use, social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. Research suggests that socially anxious individuals may find it easier to interact online where anonymity can be maintained rather than engage in face to face interaction where being observed by others might induce a fear of negative evaluation. In line with the self-regulation model, it was hypothesised that social anxiety, low ego strength, anxiety and depression, would be related to use of the internet to cope with social fears. The results were partially in line with the hypothesis. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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Aims: Internet addiction (IAD) is an emerging cause of morbidity and has been recently considered to merit inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Given the paucity of knowledge about IAD, we conducted a descriptive clinical analysis of patients focusing on clinical, demographic features, and comorbidities. The detachment has been suggested as a reason for the attractiveness of the Internet; thus, we assessed dissociative symptoms and their association with IAD disability. Design and setting: A cohort of 50 adult outpatients were screened using the Internet Addiction Scale. Exclusion criterion was using the Internet for only one purpose such as gaming or gambling. Participant: Nine women and 6 men constituted the sample of Internet addicts; each of them had a score of 70 or higher on the Internet Addiction Scale. Measurement: Comorbidities and subthreshold symptoms were screened carefully. Dissociative symptoms were analyzed with the Dissociative Experience Scale, and disability was assessed using the Sheehan Disability Scale. Findings: Hours/week spent on the Internet were 42.21 +/- 3.09. Clinical diagnoses included 14% attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, 7% hypomania, 15% generalized anxiety disorder, 15% social anxiety disorder; 7% dysthymia, 7% obsessive compulsive personality disorder, 14% borderline personality disorder, and 7% avoidant personality disorder. One patient met criteria for binge eating disorder. Severity measures of IAD were associated with higher perception of family disability (r = 0.814; P <or= .001) and with higher Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Severity score (r = 0.771; P <or= .001). Scores for the Dissociative Experience Scale were higher than expected (23.20 +/- 1.83) and were related to higher obsessive compulsive scores (r = 0.618; P <or= .001), hours per week on the Internet (r = 0.749; P <or= .001), and perception of family disability (r = 0.677; P <or= .001). Conclusion: From a phenomenological point of view, IAD in our sample population seems to be more compulsory than rewarding or mood driven. Dissociative symptoms are related to severity and impact of IAD.
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This research examined factors associated with Internet addiction in adolescence using a population-based cross-sectional survey with self-reported questionnaires. Participants were recruited from high school students, ages 13 to 18 years, registered on the secondary school registry in Guangzhou city using a stratified random sampling technique. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Information was also collected on demographics, health behaviors, and perception of personal condition. Depression was assessed by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The majority of respondents were classified as normal users of the Internet (n = 1,392, 89.2%), with 158 (10.2%) moderately and 10 (0.6%) severely addicted to the Internet. Results from the multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested a 50% increased odds for males to be addicted to the Internet (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.2) when compared to females. Other potential risk factors included drinking behavior (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.8), family dissatisfaction (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.3-4.3), and experience of recent stressful events (OR = 10.0, 95% CI = 6.5-12.2). Stress-related variables were associated with Internet addiction among adolescents as they are also related to other addictions. Clinicians need to be aware of potential comorbidities of other problems such as stress and family dissatisfaction among adolescent Internet addiction patients.
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The aims of this study were to develop diagnostic criteria of Internet addiction for college students (DC-IA-C) with diagnostic interviews and to establish the optimal cutoff points of the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) for the purposes of screening for and making the diagnosis of Internet addiction. A total of 216 college students (132 male and 84 female) were recruited in the study. The results demonstrated that 5/6 cutoff points of criteria A in DC-IA-C had the best diagnostic accuracy (95.9%). Besides, 63/64 and 67/68 cutoff points of the CIAS were evaluated to be the best screening and diagnostic cutoff points, respectively. The DC-IA-C can provide health care professionals with a means to diagnose and communicate about Internet addiction among college students, and the screening and diagnostic cutoff points of CIAS could provide a screening instrument or a discriminative instrument in surveys for Internet addiction among college students.
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The prevalence of Internet addiction and influential factors associated with Internet addiction among freshmen college students were investigated in this study. A total of 3557 first-year university students from a university in northwest China were surveyed with Young's 20-item Internet Addiction Test (IAT) questionnaire, a Self-Rating Depression scale (SDS), a Self-Rating Anxiety scale (SAS), and a basic information questionnaire. A rate of 6.44% of the participants surveyed showed Internet addiction. The students with Internet addiction had higher scores of SDS and SAS compared with those without Internet addiction (p < 0.01). There were significant positive correlations between SDS and SAS scores and Internet addiction (p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that a single-parent family, the age of first exposure to Internet use, the age of the student, city residence, and homesickness were significantly associated with Internet addiction (p < 0.01). Special and closer attention should be paid to these factors, and a risk-focus approach should be implemented in university freshmen with depression, anxiety, and other influential factors associated with Internet addiction at the beginning of their university life to guarantee the fulfillment of their academic study and graduation.
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate alexithymia, dissociative experiences, and Internet addiction (IA) in a nonclinical sample of 312 undergraduate students, identifying predictive factors associated with the possible risk of developing IA. We found that alexithymics had more consistent dissociative experiences, lower self-esteem, and higher obsessive-compulsive symptoms than nonalexithymics. In addition, alexithymics reported a higher potential risk for IA when compared to nonalexithymics. Difficulty in identifying feelings, higher dissociative experiences, lower self-esteem, and higher impulse dysregulation were associated with higher IA. Thus, a combination of alexithymia, dissociative experiences, low self-esteem, and impulse dysregulation may be a risk factor for IA, at least in a nonclinical sample.
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Most Norwegians are Internet users. We conducted a stratified probability sample study (Norway, 2007, age-group 16-74 years, N= 3,399, response rate 35.3%, 87.1% Internet users) to assess the prevalence of Internet addiction and at-risk Internet use by the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). The prevalence of Internet addiction (YDQ score 5-8) was 1.0% and an additional 5.2% were at-risk Internet users (YDQ score 3-4). Internet addiction and at-risk Internet use was strongly dependent on gender and age with highest prevalences among young males (16-29 years 4.1% and 19.0%, 30-39 years 3.3% and 10.7%). Logistic regression showed that male gender, young age, university level education, and an unsatisfactory financial situation were factors positively associated with "problematic Internet use" (at-risk and addicted use combined). Time spent on the Internet and prevalence of self-reported sleeping disorders, depression, and other psychological impairments increased linearly with YDQ score. Problematic Internet use clearly affects the lives of many people.
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Internet addiction behavior was examined in 6,121 Chinese primary and secondary school students in Hong Kong based on the assessment frameworks of Ivan Goldberg and Kimberly Young. Results showed that scales derived from both frameworks (CIA-Goldberg Scale and CIA-Young Scale) were internally consistent and evidence supporting their validity was found. Descriptive statistical analyses revealed that roughly one-fifth of the respondents could be classified as Internet addicted based on either scale. Further analyses showed that Internet-addicted and -nonaddicted respondents differed in their Internet use and related behavior. Logistic regression analyses showed that engagement in certain on-line activities (such as playing on-line games and downloading software) and replacement of pastimes activities (such as watching TV and going out with friends) with Internet activities predicted a higher probability of Internet addiction.
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The etiology of the high prevalence of substance use disorders in patients with severe mental illness (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) is unclear. We review the evidence of different theories of increased comorbidity, organized according to four general models: common factor models, secondary substance use disorder models, secondary psychiatric disorder models, and bidirectional models. Among common factor models, evidence suggests that antisocial personality disorder accounts for some increased comorbidity. Among secondary substance use disorder models, there is support for the supersensitivity model, which posits that biological vulnerability of psychiatric disorders results in sensitivity to small amounts of alcohol and drugs, leading to substance use disorders. There is minimal support for the self-medication model, but the accumulation of multiple risk factors related to mental illness, including dysphoria, may increase the risk of substance use disorder. Secondary psychiatric disorder models remain to be convincingly demonstrated. Bidirectional models have not been systematically examined. Further clarification of etiologic factors, including the identification of subtypes of dual diagnosis, may have implications for developing more effective prevention efforts and treatment.
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Problems related to intemperate Internet use are examined within the conceptual framework of addiction. It is argued that empirical support for the construct validity of computer addiction has yet to emerge, that defining the construct as a unique psychiatric disorder is therefore premature, and that, in most cases, excessive computer use may be symptomatic of other, more primary disorders. Greater caution and rigor are urged in investigating and treating problems related to intemperate computer use.
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Research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a highly prevalent and controversial condition, has, for the most part, been descriptive and atheoretical. The imperative to discover the genetic and environmental risk factors for ADHD is motivating the search for quantifiable intermediate constructs, termed endophenotypes. In this selective review, we conclude that such endophenotypes should be solidly grounded in the neurosciences. We propose that three such endophenotypes — a specific abnormality in reward-related circuitry that leads to shortened delay gradients, deficits in temporal processing that result in high intrasubject intertrial variability, and deficits in working memory — are most amenable to integrative collaborative approaches that aim to uncover the causes of ADHD.
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Prior research has utilized the Zung Depression Inventory (ZDI) and found that moderate to severe rates of depression coexist with pathological Internet use.1 Although the ZDI was utilized for its expediency with on-line administration, its limitations include poor normative data and less frequent clinical use. Therefore, this study utilized the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which has more accurate norms and frequent usage among dual diagnostic patient populations. An on-line survey administered on a World Wide Web site utilized the BDI as part of a larger study. A total of 312 surveys was collected with 259 valid profiles from addicted users, which again supported significant levels of depression to be associated with pathological Internet use. This article discusses how a treatment protocol should emphasis the primary psychiatric condition if related to a subsequent impulse control problem such as pathological Internet use. Effective management of psychiatric symptoms may indirectly correct pathological Internet use.
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This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths were considered at high risk for Internet addiction and in need of further assessment and intervention. Results show that parenting attitudes, family communication, family cohesion, and family violence exposure (e.g., conjugal violence and parent-to-child violence) were associated with Internet addiction. These findings indicate that families play an important role in preventing Internet addiction and must be considered when programs are developed to minimize excessive Internet usage by high-risk adolescents.
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Anecdotal reports indicated that some on-line users were becoming addicted to the Internet in much the same way that others became addicted to drugs or alcohol, which resulted in academic, social, and occupational impairment. However, research among sociologists, psychologists, or psychiatrists has not formally identified addictive use of the Internet as a problematic behavior. This study investigated the existence of Internet addiction and the extent of problems caused by such potential misuse. Of all the diagnoses referenced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1995), Pathological Gambling was viewed as most akin to the pathological nature of Internet use. By using Pathological Gambling as a model, addictive Internet use can be defined as an impulse-control disorder that does not involve an intoxicant. Therefore, this study developed a brief eight-item questionnaire referred to as a Diagnostic Questionnaire (DQ), which modified criteria for pathological gambling to provide a screening instrument for classification of participants. On the basis of this criteria, case studies of 396 dependent Internet users (Dependents) and 100 nondependent Internet users (Nondependents) were classified. Qualitative analyses suggest significant behavioral and functional usage differences between the two groups such as the types of applications utilized, the degree of difficulty controlling weekly usage, and the severity of problems noted. Clinical and social implications of pathological Internet use and future directions for research are discussed.
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Prior research has utilized the Zung Depression Inventory (ZDI) and found that moderate to severe rates of depression coexist with pathological Internet use.1 Although the ZDI was utilized for its expediency with on-line administration, its limitations include poor normative data and less frequent clinical use. Therefore, this study utilized the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which has more accurate norms and frequent usage among dual diagnostic patient populations. An on-line survey administered on a World Wide Web site utilized the BDI as part of a larger study. A total of 312 surveys was collected with 259 valid profiles from addicted users, which again supported significant levels of depression to be associated with pathological Internet use. This article discusses how a treatment protocol should emphasis the primary psychiatric condition if related to a subsequent impulse control problem such as pathological Internet use. Effective management of psychiatric symptoms may indirectly correct pathological Internet use. Prior research has identified the existence of addictive Internet use, which has been associated with significant social, psychological, and occupational impairment.2 Addicts in this study used the Internet an average of 38 hr per week for nonacademic or non-employment purposes, which caused detrimental effects such as poor grade performance among students, discord among couples, and reduced work performance among employees. This is compared to non-addicts who used the Internet an average of 8 hr per week with no significant consequences reported. Predominantly, the interactive capabilities of the Internet such as chat rooms or on-line games were seen to be the most addictive. This type of behavioral impulse control failure, which does not involve an intoxicant, was seen as most akin to pathological gambling. Therefore, a formal term utilized in this article is pathological Internet use (PIU) to refer to cases of addictive Internet use. Research in the addictions field has shown that psychiatric illnesses such as depression are often associated with alcoholism3 and drug addiction.4 Further, research has shown that other addictive behaviors overlap with depression-for example, eating disorders5'6 and pathological gambling.7-9 Although the concept of Internet addiction has gained credibility among mental health professionals both in academic and clinical realms, little research has been conducted to examine if similar underlying psychiatric illnesses may contribute to such Internet abuse.1 Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess depression and compare such results to other established dual diagnostic populations. Young1 utilized the Zung Depression Inventory10 (ZDI), which suggested that increased levels of depression are associated with moderate to severe levels of PIU. However, the ZDI yields limited clinical utility; therefore, this study used the Beck Depression Invento#1 (BDI) because it is a more psychometrically and clinically valid
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Abstract  The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between attention deficit-hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and Internet addiction. In total, 535 elementary school students (264 boys, 271 girls; mean age, 11.0 ± 1.0 years) were recruited. The presence or severity of Internet addiction was assessed by the Young's Internet Addiction test. Parents and teachers of the children completed the DuPaul's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scale (ARS; Korean version, K-ARS) and Child Behavior Checklists. Children with the highest and lowest quartiles in K-ARS scores were defined to be in ADHD and non-ADHD groups, respectively. Five children (0.9%) met criteria for a definite Internet addiction and 75 children (14.0%) met criteria for a probable Internet addiction. K-ARS scores had significant positive correlations with Young's Internet Addiction test scores. The Internet addiction group had higher total scores of K-ARS and ADHD-related subcategories in the Child Behavior Checklists than the non-addiction group. The ADHD group had higher Internet addiction scores compared with the non-ADHD group. Therefore, significant associations have been found between the level of ADHD symptoms and the severity of Internet addiction in children. In addition, current findings suggest that the presence of ADHD symptoms, both in inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity domains, may be one of the important risk factors for Internet addiction.
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Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of Internet overuse with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Methods: A total of 2336 high school students in South Korea (boys, 57.5%; girls, 42.5%) completed the structured questionnaire. The severity of Internet addiction was evaluated using Young's Internet addiction test. Results: The proportions of boys who were classified as Internet addicts and possible Internet addicts were 2.5% and 53.7%, respectively. For girls, the corresponding proportions were 1.9% and 38.9%, respectively. The prevalence of EDS was 11.2% (boys, 11.2%; girls, 11.1%). When Internet addicts were compared with non-addicts, they consisted of more boys, drank alcohol more, and considered their own health condition as poor. But smoking was not related with Internet addiction. The prevalence rate of EDS for Internet addicts was 37.7%, whereas that for possible Internet addicts and non-addicts was 13.9% and 7.4%, respectively. The prevalence of insomnia, witnessed snoring, apnea, teeth grinding, and nightmares was highest in Internet addicts, middle in possible addicts, and lowest in non-addicts. With adjustment for duration of Internet use, duration of sleep time, age, gender, smoking, taking painkillers due to headache, insomnia symptoms, witnessed apnea, and nightmares, the odds of EDS were 5.2-fold greater (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7–10.2) in Internet addicts and 1.9-fold greater (95%CI: 1.4–2.6) in possible Internet addicts compared to non-addicts. Conclusion: Internet addiction is strongly associated with EDS in adolescents. Clinicians should consider examining Internet addiction in adolescent cases of EDS.
Article
Kraut et al. (1998) reported negative effects of using the Internet on social involvement and psychological well-being among new Internet users in 1995–96. We called the effects a “paradox” because participants used the Internet heavily for communication, which generally has positive effects. A 3-year follow-up of 208 of these respondents found that negative effects dissipated. We also report findings from a longitudinal survey in 1998–99 of 406 new computer and television purchasers. This sample generally experienced positive effects of using the Internet on communication, social involvement, and well-being. However, consistent with a “rich get richer” model, using the Internet predicted better outcomes for extraverts and those with more social support but worse outcomes for introverts and those with less support.
Article
Aims: The aim of the present study was to compare psychiatric symptoms between adolescents with and without Internet addiction, as well as between analogs with and without substance use. Methods: A total of 3662 students (2328 male and 1334 female) were recruited for the study. Self-report scales were utilized to assess psychiatric symptoms, Internet addiction, and substance use. Results: It was found that Internet addiction or substance use in adolescents was associated with more severe psychiatric symptoms. Hostility and depression were associated with Internet addiction and substance use after controlling for other symptoms. Conclusions: This result partially supports the hypothesis that Internet addiction should be included in the organization of problem behavior theory, and it is suggested that prevention and intervention can best be carried out when grouped with other problem behaviors. Moreover, more attention should be devoted to hostile and depressed adolescents in the design of preventive strategies and the related therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction.
Article
The present study examined excessive Internet use of Taiwanese adolescents and a psychological aspect of users, sensation seeking, thus to differentiate motivation of Internet dependents and non-dependents. Seven hundred and fifty three Taiwanese high school students were selected using cluster sampling and 88 of them were categorized as Internet dependent users. Results indicated that Internet dependents spent more time on-line than non-dependents. While Internet dependents perceived significantly more negative Internet influences on daily routines, school performance, and parental relation than non-dependents, both Internet dependents and non-dependents viewed Internet use as enhancing peer relations. Making friends through the Internet has become a popular activity among adolescents, potentially leading to its excessive use. Internet dependents scored significantly higher on overall sensation seeking and disinhibition than Internet non-dependents. However, both groups did not differ in the life experience seeking subscale and thrill and adventure seeking subscale. This finding contradicts that of Lavin, Marvin, McLarney, Nola, and Scott [CyberPsychol. Behav. 2 (2000) 425]. Possible reasons for this discrepancy and for the relation between Internet dependence and disinhibition in Taiwanese adolescents are also discussed.
Article
The Internet Addiction Scale (IAS) is a self-report instrument based on the seven substance dependence criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and two additional criteria recommended by Griffiths. The IAS was administered to 300 high school students along with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Submissive Acts Scale (SAS). For test-retest reliability, the IAS was administered a second time 7 days after the first administration. An interitem reliability reduced the initial scale from 31 to 27 items (with Cronbach's alpha of 0.94). The factor analysis suggests the existence mainly of one factor in the IAS. Correlation analyses indicated that BDI and SAS were significantly correlated positively with the IAS. One-week test-retest correlation for the IAS was highly significant. According to these results, the psychometric properties of the IAS are promising.
Article
To evaluate the predictive values of psychiatric symptoms for the occurrence of Internet addiction and to determine the sex differences in the predictive value of psychiatric symptoms for the occurrence of Internet addiction in adolescents. Internet addiction, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, social phobia, and hostility were assessed by self-reported questionnaires. Participants were then invited to be assessed for Internet addiction 6, 12, and 24 months later (the second, third, and fourth assessments, respectively). Ten junior high schools in southern Taiwan. A total of 2293 (1179 boys and 1114 girls) adolescents participated in the initial investigation. The course of time. Internet addiction as assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, social phobia, and hostility were found to predict the occurrence of Internet addiction in the 2-year follow-up, and hostility and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were the most significant predictors of Internet addiction in male and female adolescents, respectively. These results suggest that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, hostility, depression, and social phobia should be detected early on and intervention carried out to prevent Internet addiction in adolescents. Also, sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity should be taken into consideration when developing prevention and intervention strategies for Internet addiction.
Article
International literature has identified a stable correlation between problems in the sphere of adolescents' personal relationships and potential Internet dependence. The objective of this research is to verify in an Italian context the relationship among problematic Internet use (PIU), the quality of interpersonal relationships, and the cognitive strategies habitually used by adolescents to face daily problems. The participants in the research were 98 adolescents ages 14 to 19 (M = 16.28 years). The following instruments were administered to the participants: the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Test of Interpersonal Relationships (TRI); and the Children's Coping Strategies Checklist (CCSC). Parents of the participants were administered the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Of the participants, 36.7% showed signs of PIU. These adolescents use the Internet for many hours per week; most utilize dysfunctional coping strategies and show worse interpersonal relations than peers who do not show signs of PIU.