A new three-dimensional model for emotions and monoamine neurotransmitters

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.
Medical Hypotheses (Impact Factor: 1.07). 12/2011; 78(2):341-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2011.11.016
Source: PubMed


The monoamines serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline have a great impact on mood, emotion and behavior. This article presents a new three-dimensional model for monoamine neurotransmitters and emotions. In the model, the monoamine systems are represented as orthogonal axes and the eight basic emotions, labeled according to Tomkins, are placed at each of the eight possible extreme values, represented as corners of a cube. The model may help in understanding human emotions, psychiatric illness and the effects of psychotropic drugs. However, further empirical studies are needed to establish its validity.

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Available from: Hugo Lövheim, Jul 07, 2015
    • "The author discusses the Darwinian, the Jamesian, the cognitivists and the social constructivist theoretical perspectives and claims that these perspectives have begun to converge. Besides those philosophical [19] and physiological perspectives [13] present relevant contributions to be taken into account in the process of understanding how emotions are expressed by vocal and facial gestures. Results of the research on the perception of emotions demonstrate that judges are able to infer speech with better-than-chance accuracy [16]. "
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    • "We note here that several other theories exist, although they are less prominent. One example is the cube of emotion [55], which is a dimensional theory of affect that expresses affect in terms of combinations of dopamine, adrenaline, and serotonin, which intersect in eight basic (but extreme) affects, e.g. distress, interest, joy. "
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    • "One aspect of modern AI is affective computation that becomes more and more important. Affective computation is based on several domains: psychology [25] [26] [27] [28] [30], neuroscience [4] [5] [10] [17] [25] [28] [1], computer science [34] [6] [7] [8] [14] [22] [19] [8] [7] [5] [4] [2] [3] [16]. "
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