Initial construction of a maladaptive personality trait model and inventory for DSM-5
Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Psychological Medicine
(Impact Factor: 5.94).
12/2011; 42(9):1879-90. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291711002674
DSM-IV-TR suggests that clinicians should assess clinically relevant personality traits that do not necessarily constitute a formal personality disorder (PD), and should note these traits on Axis II, but DSM-IV-TR does not provide a trait model to guide the clinician. Our goal was to provide a provisional trait model and a preliminary corresponding assessment instrument, in our roles as members of the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Workgroup and workgroup advisors.
An initial list of specific traits and domains (broader groups of traits) was derived from DSM-5 literature reviews and workgroup deliberations, with a focus on capturing maladaptive personality characteristics deemed clinically salient, including those related to the criteria for DSM-IV-TR PDs. The model and instrument were then developed iteratively using data from community samples of treatment-seeking participants. The analytic approach relied on tools of modern psychometrics (e.g. item response theory models).
A total of 25 reliably measured core elements of personality description emerged that, together, delineate five broad domains of maladaptive personality variation: negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism.
We developed a maladaptive personality trait model and corresponding instrument as a step on the path toward helping users of DSM-5 assess traits that may or may not constitute a formal PD. The inventory we developed is reprinted in its entirety in the Supplementary online material, with the goal of encouraging additional refinement and development by other investigators prior to the finalization of DSM-5. Continuing discussion should focus on various options for integrating personality traits into DSM-5.
Available from: Viren Swami
- "Measures 2.2.1. Maladaptive personality traits The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012 "
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ABSTRACT: Conspiracy theories can be treated as both rational narratives of the world as well as outcomes of underlying maladaptive traits. Here, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and individual differences in personality disorders. An Internet-based sample (N = 259) completed measures of belief in conspiracy theories and the 25 facets of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Preliminary analyses showed no significant differences in belief in conspiracy theories across participant sex, ethnicity, and education. Regression analyses showed that the PID-5 facets of Unusual Beliefs and Experiences and, to a lesser extent, Suspiciousness, significantly predicted belief in conspiracy theories. These findings highlight a role for maladaptive personality traits in understanding belief in conspiracy theories, but require further investigation.
Available from: Nadia Al-Dajani
- "(median D 0.75). Similar internal consistency estimates have been established across several studies (e.g., De Fruyt et al., 2013; Gore & Widiger, 2013; Hopwood, Thomas, Markon, Wright, & Krueger, 2012; see Appendix B). "
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ABSTRACT: The paradigm of personality psychopathology is shifting from one that is purely categorical in nature to one grounded in dimensional individual differences. Section III (Emerging Measures and Models) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), for example, includes a hybrid categorical/dimensional model of personality disorder classification. To inform the hybrid model, the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group developed a self-report instrument to assess pathological personality traits-the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5). Since its recent introduction, 30 papers (39 samples) have been published examining various aspects of its psychometric properties. In this article, we review the psychometric characteristics of the PID-5 using the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing as our framework. The PID-5 demonstrates adequate psychometric properties, including a replicable factor structure, convergence with existing personality instruments, and expected associations with broadly conceptualized clinical constructs. More research is needed with specific consideration to clinical utility, additional forms of reliability and validity, relations with psychopathological personality traits using clinical samples, alternative methods of criterion validation, effective employment of cut scores, and the inclusion of validity scales to propel this movement forward.
Available from: Kenny Karyadi
- "After reverse scoring seventeen items, PID-5 items are summed to compose PID-5 trait scale scores and PID-5 trait scales are summed to generate PID-5 domain scale scores, with each PID-5 item being scored on only one PID-5 trait scale and each PID-5 trait scale being scored on only one PID-5 domain scale. PID-5 domains were scored using Krueger et al. (2012) algorithm for scoring PID-5 domains . Internal consistency coefficients ranged from .90 to .95 for these domains. "
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ABSTRACT: The present study examined the reliability and validity of the Italian translation of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P) in a clinical sample of 268 consecutively admitted psychotherapy patients (43.3% male; mean age = 40.48 (SD=12.52); 38.8% inpatient). The Italian UPPS-P replicated the internal consistency coefficients of the original UPPS-P(0.84 to 0.92 across the five subscales). Moreover, confirmatory factor analyses evidenced an adequate fit for the a-priori five-factor model of the scale (WLSMV CFA χ2(1642)=2833.06, p<.001; RMSEA=0.052, 95%confidence interval=0.049 to 0.055, p>.10; CFI=.90; TLI=.90). Furthermore, the UPPS-P scales were significantly related to the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 total score (rs=0.23 to 0.60 across the five scales). Finally, the five UPPS-P scales showed distinct associations with domain scores and interview-based dimensional scores of personality disorders. These findings suggest that the Italian version of the UPPS-P can be considered a valid and reliable alternative to the original UPPS-P and can be a useful diagnostic tool in a clinical sample.
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