Effect of 5% fluoride varnish application on caries among school children in rural Brazil: A randomized controlled trial
Department of Orthodontics & Pediatric Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology
(Impact Factor: 2.03).
12/2011; 40(3):267-76. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2011.00656.x
To determine the efficacy of 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish application in reducing caries increments in the permanent dentition of rural Brazilian school children over the course of 12 months.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 379 children aged 7-14 years who attended three schools in Brazil between January 2006 and December 2007. During this period, each school was visited four times at 6-month interval for recruitment, dental examinations, and fluoride varnish applications. Recruited children were randomly assigned to either a treatment (5% NaF varnish, n = 198) or a control group (placebo, n = 181). Trained interviewers collected data on oral health habits and sociodemographic characteristics from the children. Information on the child's diet was collected through a 7-day food frequency diary. Caries examinations were conducted using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The efficacy of fluoride varnish application on caries prevention was reported as a preventive fraction (PF). Crude caries increments of decayed and filled surfaces (DFS) were compared between fluoride varnish and placebo groups. A generalized linear model (GLM) was constructed to test the differences in DFS increments between the groups after accounting for confounding factors.
Of the total sample (N = 379), 210 (55.4%) children had completed 12 months of follow-up including one or two applications of fluoride varnish or placebo. At the baseline examination, the children in the treatment and control groups presented on average 6.2 and 5.6 DFS, respectively (P < 0.001). After 12 months of follow-up, the children in the varnish group showed significantly lower DFS increments than did children in the control group (10.8 versus 13.3; P < 0.007), with PF of 40% (95% CI: 34.3-45.7%; P < 0.0001).
The results of this study suggest that applications of 5% NaF varnish can be recommended as a public health measure for reducing caries incidence in this high-caries-risk population.
Available from: Bisakha Sen
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ABSTRACT: Background and objective:
Although preventive dental visits are considered important for maintaining pediatric oral health, there is relatively little research showing that they reduce subsequent nonpreventive dental visits or costs. At least 1 study seemed to find that early preventive dental care is associated with more restorative and emergency visits. Previous studies are limited by their inability to account for unmeasurable factors that may lead children to "select" into using both more preventive and nonpreventive dental care. We used econometric techniques that minimize selection bias to assess the effectiveness of preventive dental care in reducing subsequent nonpreventive dental service utilization among children.
Using data from Alabama's Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), 1998-2010., a cohort study of children's dental service utilization was conducted. Outcomes were 1-year lagged nonpreventive dental care and expenditures, and overall dental and medical expenditures. Children who were continuously enrolled for at least 3 years were included. Separate models were estimated for children aged <8 years (n = 14 972) and those aged ≥8 years (n = 21 833).
More preventive visits were associated with fewer subsequent nonpreventive dental visits and lower nonpreventive dental expenditures for both groups. However, more preventive visits did not reduce overall dental or medical (inclusive of dental) expenditures.
Preventive dental visits can reduce subsequent nonpreventive visits and expenditures for children continuously enrolled in CHIP. However, they may not reduce overall program costs. Effective empirical research in this area must continue to address unobserved confounders and selection issues.
Available from: Michael J Metz
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ABSTRACT: Contributing Author: June 2nd-5th, 2013- Participated 25 hours as a nationally elected member for King’s College London workshop that inaugurated the Global Collaboratory for Caries Management (GCCM). International Caries Classification and Management System (ICCMS™), Manual of Clinical Recommendations for Caries Management for Practitioners and Educators, 2013.
Available from: Helen V Worthington
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ABSTRACT: Background Topically-applied fluoride varnishes have been used extensively as an operator-applied caries-preventive intervention for over three decades. This review updates the first Cochrane review of fluoride varnishes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents, which was first published in 2002. Objectives To determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride varnishes in preventing dental caries in children and adolescents, and to examine factors potentially modifying their effect. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 13 May 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 4), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 13 May 2013), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 13 May 2013), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 13 May 2013), LILACS and BBO via the BIREME Virtual Health Library (1980 to 13 May 2013), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 13 May 2013), and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1945 to 13 May 2013). A search for ongoing trials was undertaken on ClinicalTrials.gov on 13 May 2013. There were no restrictions on language or date of publication in the search of the electronic databases. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials with blind outcome assessment used or indicated, comparing topically-applied fluoride varnish with placebo or no treatment in children up to 16 years during at least one year. Themain outcome was caries increment measured by the change in decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces in both permanent (D(M) FS) and primary (d(e/m) fs) teeth. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors assessed all search results, extracted data and undertook risk of bias independently. Study authors were contacted for additional information. The primary measure of effect was the prevented fraction, that is the difference in mean caries increments between the treatment and control groups expressed as a percentage of the mean increment in the control group. The caries increments nearest to three years were used from each included study. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed where data could be pooled. Potential sources of heterogeneity were examined in random-effects meta-regression analyses. Adverse effects information was collected from the included trials. Main results Twenty-two trials with 12,455 participants randomised (9595 used in analyses) were included. For the 13 that contributed data for the permanent tooth surfaces meta-analysis, the pooled D(M) FS prevented fraction estimate comparing fluoride varnish with placebo or no treatment was 43% (95% confidence interval (CI) 30% to 57%; P < 0.0001). There was substantial heterogeneity, confirmed statistically (P < 0.0001; I-2 = 75%), however this body of evidence was assessed as of moderate quality. The pooled d(e/m) fs prevented fraction estimate was 37% (95% CI 24% to 51%; P < 0.0001) for the 10 trials that contributed data for the primary tooth surfaces meta-analysis, also with some heterogeneity (P = 0.009; I-2 = 59%). Once again this body of evidence was assessed as of moderate quality. No significant association between estimates of D(M) FS or d(e/m) fs prevented fractions and the pre-specified factors of baseline caries severity, background exposure to fluorides, application features such as prior prophylaxis, concentration of fluoride, frequency of application were found. There was also no significant association between estimates of D(M) FS or d(e/m) fs prevented fractions and the post hoc factors: whether a placebo or no treatment control was used, length of follow-up, or whether individual or cluster randomisation was used, in the meta-regression models. A funnel plot of the trials in the main meta-analyses indicated no clear relationship between prevented fraction and study precision. In both methods, power is limited when few trials are included. There was little information concerning possible adverse effects or acceptability of treatment. Authors' conclusions The conclusions of this updated review remain the same as those when it was first published. The review suggests a substantial cariesinhibiting effect of fluoride varnish in both permanent and primary teeth, however the quality of the evidence was assessed as moderate, as it included mainly high risk of bias studies, with considerable heterogeneity.
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