Capillary Electrophoresis

University of Minnesota, Department of Chemistry, 207 Pleasant Street South East, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States.
Analytical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 5.64). 12/2011; 84(2):577-96. DOI: 10.1021/ac203205a
Source: PubMed


Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) is a field that continues to grow. All areas of CE including theory, separation modes, instrumentation and applications remain highly active areas of research. This review includes a cross section of references from all areas of the field published in the two year period between Jan. 2010 and Nov. 2011. Web of Science reports over 4,000 articles, including 396 reviews, published with CE in the title, abstract or key words during this time period. Of these we have chosen 218 papers. We have attempted to choose papers that showcase some of the newest and most exciting developments in the field. It should be noted that papers describing electrophoresis in microfabricated devices were excluded since another review in this issue exclusively covers this topic.

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    • "trophoretic mobility of NPs based on their charge and size distribution in the sample , when an external electric field is applied . Ions move toward the electrode of opposite charge . The separation would be achieved by the mobility of the species depending not only on the solvent medium , but also on the charges , sizes , and shapes of the NPs ( Geiger et al . , 2012 ) . CE requires minimal amounts of samples and chemicals , it is a fast analysis and it generates minimum waste . Its flexibility and versatility are unrivaled and the same instrumentation can be used to separate a diverse range of analytes , both large and small molecules , whether charged or uncharged ( Powers et al . , 2006 ; Zhang e"
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    ABSTRACT: Many products used in everyday life are made with the assistance of nanotechnologies. Cosmetic, pharmaceuticals, sunscreen, powdered food are only few examples of end products containing nano-sized particles (NPs), generally added to improve the product quality. To evaluate correctly benefits vs. risks of engineered nanomaterials and consequently to legislate in favor of consumer's protection, it is necessary to know the hazards connected with the exposure levels. This information implies transversal studies and a number of different competences. On analytical point of view the identification, quantification and characterization of NPs in food matrices and in cosmetic or personal care products pose significant challenges, because NPs are usually present at low concentration levels and the matrices, in which they are dispersed, are complexes and often incompatible with analytical instruments that would be required for their detection and characterization. This paper focused on some analytical techniques suitable for the detection, characterization and quantification of NPs in food and cosmetics products, reports their recent application in characterizing specific metal and metal-oxide NPs in these two important industrial and market sectors. The need of a characterization of the NPs as much as possible complete, matching complementary information about different metrics, possible achieved through validate procedures, is what clearly emerges from this research. More work should be done to produce standardized materials and to set-up methodologies to determine number-based size distributions and to get quantitative date about the NPs in such a complex matrices.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Frontiers in Chemistry
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    • "Emerged in the late 1980s and beginnings of the 1990s, monolithic materials have proven to be a good stationary phase in high efficiency separations in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [1] and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) [2] [3]. Numerous monoliths including common polymeric and silicabased monoliths [4] have been developed for the separations of small molecules and high-molecular-weight molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. "
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    ABSTRACT: Monolithic poly(methacrylate epoxy cyclosiloxane-co-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes) (epoxy-MA-POSS) capillary columns have been prepared via either photo- or thermally-initiated polymerization of the corresponding monomers using a 1-propanol/PEG 400 mixture as porogens. Photochemical polymerization was accomplished by irradiation of the UV-transparent capillary for 10min at room temperature, while thermal polymerization was performed at 55°C, 60°C or 65°C for 18h. The evaluation of chromatographic property for two hybrid epoxy-MA-POSS monoliths was carried out. The results indicate that hybrid monoliths fabricated by photochemical initiation exhibit higher column efficiency (97,000-98,400plates/m) than those synthesized by thermal polymerization (41,100-48,000plates/m) in cLC. The higher efficiency of photo-initiated hybrid monoliths is closely related to lower eddy dispersion (A-term) and mass transfer resistance (C-term). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Chromatography A
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    • "We also performed qualitative and quantitative analysis of each of these compounds by two capillary electromigration methods: capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). These two techniques are excellent tools for separation of both ionogenic and electroneutral compounds [23] [24] [25] and are frequently used for analysis and characterization of amino acids and their derivatives [26] [27] [28]. In addition, these DAP derivatives were characterized by their effective electrophoretic mobilities determined by CZE in acidic and alkaline classical or isoelectric background electrolytes (BGEs) or by MEKC in acidic and alkaline BGEs containing a micellar pseudostationary phase constituted by the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or the cationic detergent "
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    ABSTRACT: Thirteen mono-N-acyl derivatives of 2,6-diaminopimelic acid (DAP) - new potential inhibitors of the DapE-encoded N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE; EC were analyzed and characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopies and two capillary electromigration methods - zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Structural features of DAP derivatives were characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopies whereas CZE and MEKC were applied to evaluate their purity and to investigate their electromigration properties. Effective electrophoretic mobilities of these compounds were determined by CZE in acidic and alkaline background electrolytes (BGEs) and by MEKC in acidic and alkaline BGEs containing a pseudostationary phase of anionic detergent sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The best separation of DAP derivatives, including diastereomers of some of them, was achieved by MEKC in an acidic BGE (500 mM acetic acid, pH 2.54, 60 mM SDS). All DAP derivatives were examined for their ability to inhibit catalytic activity of DapE from Haemophilus influenzae and ArgE from Escherichia coli. None of these DAP derivatives worked as an effective inhibitor of HiDapE but one derivative, N-fumaryl, Me-ester-DAP, was found to be moderate inhibitor of EcArgE, thus providing a promising lead structure for further studies on ArgE inhibitors.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Analytical Biochemistry
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