Article

Exposure Assessment for Estimation of the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Outdoor Air Pollution

School of Population and Public Health, The University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T1Z3, Canada.
Environmental Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 12/2011; 46(2):652-60. DOI: 10.1021/es2025752
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Ambient air pollution is associated with numerous adverse health impacts. Previous assessments of global attributable disease burden have been limited to urban areas or by coarse spatial resolution of concentration estimates. Recent developments in remote sensing, global chemical-transport models, and improvements in coverage of surface measurements facilitate virtually complete spatially resolved global air pollutant concentration estimates. We combined these data to generate global estimates of long-term average ambient concentrations of fine particles (PM(2.5)) and ozone at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 1990 and 2005. In 2005, 89% of the world's population lived in areas where the World Health Organization Air Quality Guideline of 10 μg/m(3) PM(2.5) (annual average) was exceeded. Globally, 32% of the population lived in areas exceeding the WHO Level 1 Interim Target of 35 μg/m(3), driven by high proportions in East (76%) and South (26%) Asia. The highest seasonal ozone levels were found in North and Latin America, Europe, South and East Asia, and parts of Africa. Between 1990 and 2005 a 6% increase in global population-weighted PM(2.5) and a 1% decrease in global population-weighted ozone concentrations was apparent, highlighted by increased concentrations in East, South, and Southeast Asia and decreases in North America and Europe. Combined with spatially resolved population distributions, these estimates expand the evaluation of the global health burden associated with outdoor air pollution.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Sarah B Henderson, Apr 22, 2015
  • Source
    • "Air quality is one of the environmental issues that most directly affect the population [1] . The main concern related to air quality is related to their involvement in the health of the population as well as other factors such as, among others, the living conditions of animals and plants [2]. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
  • Source
    • "AOD values measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites are the most commonly used data. The association between PM and AOD has been assessed though statistical models (Brauer et al., 2012; Koelemeijer et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2009; Ma et al., 2014; van Donkelaar et al., 2010); however, most of these previous studies were conducted at large spatial scales, e.g., at the global, national and regional scale, and few studies utilized AOD data from MODIS to estimate the within-city variability of PM. Adding land use variables (road network, land use types and industrial emissions) can improve the spatial resolution of the model (Kloog et al., 2011, 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Development of exposure assessment model is the key component for epidemiological studies concerning air pollution, but the evidence from China is limited. Therefore, a linear mixed effects (LME) model was established in this study in a Chinese metropolis by incorporating aerosol optical depth (AOD), meteorological information and the land use regression (LUR) model to predict ground PM10 levels on high spatiotemporal resolution. The cross validation (CV) R(2) and the RMSE of the LME model were 0.87 and 19.2 μg/m(3), respectively. The relative prediction error (RPE) of daily and annual mean predicted PM10 concentrations were 19.1% and 7.5%, respectively. This study was the first attempt in China to estimate both short-term and long-term variation of PM10 levels with high spatial resolution in a Chinese metropolis with the LME model. The results suggested that the LME model could provide exposure assessment for short-term and long-term epidemiological studies in China.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Environmental Pollution
  • Source
    • "Other countries are expected to also set limit values for PM 2.5 . Exceedances of these health-related benchmarks frequently occur in many of the 15 most populated cities and regions worldwide (Brauer et al., 2011). Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) was monitored historically and is still regulated in some countries. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Respirable particulate matter present in outdoor and indoor environments is a health hazard. The particle concentrations can quickly change, with steep gradients on short temporal and spatial scales, and their chemical composition and physical properties vary considerably. Existing networks of aerosol particle measurements consist of limited number of monitoring stations, and mostly aim at assessment of compliance with air quality legislation regulating mass of particles of varying sizes. These networks can now be supplemented using small portable devices with low-cost sensors for assessment of particle mass that may provide higher temporal and spatial resolution if we understand the capabilities and characteristics of the data they provide. This paper overviews typical currently available devices and their characteristics. In addition it is presented original results of measurement and modelling in the aim of one low-cost PM monitor validation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Environmental Pollution
Show more