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The civic domain has taken its place in the scholarship and practice of youth development. From the beginning, the field has focused on youth as assets who contribute to the common good of their communities. Work at the cutting edge of this field integrates research and practice and focuses on the civic incorporation of groups who often have been marginalized from mainstream society. The body of work also extends topics of relevance to human development by considering themes of justice, social responsibility, critical consciousness, and collective action.
Flanagan, C. A., & Christens, B. D. (2011). Youth civic development: Historical context and
emerging issues. In C. A. Flanagan & B. D. Christens (Eds.), Youth civic development:
Work at the cutting edge. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 134, 1–9.
Youth Civic Development: Historical Context
and Emerging Issues
Constance A. Flanagan, Brian D. Christens
The civic domain has taken its place in the scholarship and practice of youth
development. From the beginning, the field has focused on youth as assets who
contribute to the common good of their communities. Work at the cutting edge
of this field integrates research and practice and focuses on the civic incorpo-
ration of groups who often have been marginalized from mainstream society.
The body of work also extends topics of relevance to human development by
considering themes of justice, social responsibility, critical consciousness, and
collective action. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NEW DIRECTIONS FOR CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT, no. 134, Winter 2011 © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Published online in Wiley Online Library ( • DOI: 10.1002/cd.307 1
Over the past few decades, there has been a growing awareness of
the civic/political domain as a context for adolescent and youth
development. Signs that this field has come of age include the for-
mation of CIRCLE (, a national research organization
and clearinghouse on youth civic engagement and the publication of the
rst Handbook of Research on Civic Engagement in Youth (Sherrod, Torney-
Purta, & Flanagan, 2010). In addition, two prominent international
reports on youth in the majority world devoted chapters to citizenship.
Both Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Develop-
ing Countries (Lloyd, 2005) issued by the National Research Council and
Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Population and World Development
Report: Development and the Next Generation issued by the World Bank
(2007) considered the civic engagement of younger generations important
in its own right, but also critical for the health of communities, econo-
mies, governments, and societies.
An Evolving Field
Scholarly interest in the civic/political domain had been increasing in North
America and Western Europe, in part, due to concerns that recent cohorts of
young adults had become disengaged from politics and civic life, and that
the community organizations that ushered younger generations into civic/
political life were on the decline (Putnam, 2000). Consequently, attention
turned to the developmental precursors of adult political engagement and
to a definition of civic life that expanded beyond electoral politics.
From its inception, this field involved practitioners and scholars from
multiple disciplines, most notably, education, youth development, politi-
cal science, and psychology. Besides its multidisciplinary character, it also
was a field that believed in the reciprocal relationship between theory and
practice. In this regard, the contributions of two bodies of scholarship are
especially noteworthy. Research on positive youth development (PYD) and
on service learning/community service both have focused attention on
the contributions that young people make to their communities (Benson,
Scales, Hamilton, & Sesma, 2006; Furco & Root, 2010). These fi elds have
contributed to our understanding of youth as assets to their communities
and as agents of social change; they also have pointed to the opportunities
for civic engagement in the contexts where young people spend time.
Research on civic education and on extracurricular and community-based
organizations has complemented this scholarship.
What have we learned? First, youth are more likely to be civically
active as adults if they have had opportunities during adolescence to work
collaboratively with peers and adults on engaging issues and to discuss
current events with parents, teachers, and peers. Interest in political issues
tends to be generated by controversy, contestation, discussion, and the
perception that it matters to take a stand. Second, young people’s sense of
social incorporation (solidarity with others, identification with commu-
nity institutions, being respected and heard by adults) is a psychological
factor that is positively related to youth assuming social responsibility for
others in their communities and for taking civic actions (e.g., voting and
volunteering) in young adulthood. These relationships are true for youth
from different social class and ethnic backgrounds. Third, there is a class
and racial divide in the civic opportunities available to young people:
cumulative disadvantage built up over the years of pre-school through
twelfth grade (including the lack of opportunities to practice civic skills,
the competing demands on attention and time of living in economically
stressed communities, and especially events such as dropping out of
school or getting arrested) depresses civic incorporation and civic action
later in life. Fourth, besides opportunities, there are traits of personality
(e.g., extraversion, confidence, optimism) that predispose some youth to
join organizations and get engaged in civic action. Fifth, youth engage-
ment in meaningful civic projects is positively associated with their psy-
chosocial well-being and mental health.
This volume of New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
builds on the extant body of work and pushes the boundaries in cutting-
edge theoretical, empirical, and practical directions. Like the PYD and ser-
vice learning paradigms, the focus is on youth as assets, acting in the
broader and best interests of their communities. Nevertheless, contributors
to the volume press beyond these paradigms by raising issues of social jus-
tice and unequal access to society’s resources for groups of youth who are
marginalized from the mainstream. Further, besides identifying inequalities
in access, the authors expound on ways that young people are contesting
those injustices by taking action. Moreover, several chapters focus on
groups of youth who often have been left out of the literature on youth
civic engagement. Three chapters focus in particular on the political/
civic actions of youth in the United States who are marginalized due to
their social class, ethnic minority, or immigrant status. Two others draw
from research on youth in the majority world.
The volume also makes cutting-edge contributions to theory in this
eld and in the broader field of adolescent development, in part because
contributors have extended the boundaries of questions to ask, and of
groups of young people to include in answering them. The lens is on the
value of collective action and commitment to a common good for adoles-
cent development. In itself, this is a departure from the more common
emphasis on individual and interpersonal relationships in the fi eld of
youth development.
Organization of the Volume
Laura Wray-Lake and Amy Syvertsen open the volume with a chapter
on the developmental origins of social responsibility in childhood and
adolescence. This value orientation, which is based on empathy with oth-
ers, transcends self-interest and links one’s well-being and fate with those
of fellow human beings. Thus, social responsibility refers to obligations
for our common good or shared self-interest with fellow citizens and
human beings. Arguing that this value orientation is at the heart of civic/
political action, Wray-Lake and Syvertsen trace its developmental founda-
tions to socialization that emphasizes principles of care and justice and
that respects children’s rights to participate in democratic decision
making. Socialization practices such as modeling prosocial action (e.g.,
parents’ own involvement in community action) or emphasizing standards
of concern or care for others when communicating with children nurture
socially responsible children and adolescents.
In the next chapter Brian Christens and Ben Kirshner provide an inte-
grative and historical analysis of the interdisciplinary field of youth orga-
nizing. They trace the evolution of this field that from the beginning was
attentive to the insights and the anger of young people who were margin-
alized from mainstream institutions. The authors characterize the fi eld of
youth organizing as a combination of community organizing, with its
emphasis on ordinary people working collectively to advance shared inter-
ests, and positive youth development, with its emphasis on asset-based
approaches to working with young people. Based on an impressive body
of scholarship employing different theoretical perspectives, Christens and
Kirshner identify common elements of this form of youth civic engage-
ment including relationship development, popular education, social
action, and participatory research and evaluation. In just a little over a
decade, youth organizing has evolved from an innovative, but marginal
model to one that is widely recognized, respected, and adopted by com-
munity-based youth development organizations.
In the next chapter on critical consciousness, Roderick Watts, Matthew
Diemer, and Adam Voight also apply a historical lens by locating the theo-
retical origins of this approach to youth political development in Paulo
Freire’s classic work in Brazil. The capacities of people—regardless of their
background or education—to analyze their society and their place in it is
the process of becoming conscious, as Freire advocated. Not surprisingly,
issues of social justice emerge when it is the powerless who participate in
this process. However, awareness is only the beginning. According to Watts,
Diemer, and Voight, besides critical reflection, critical action and political
efficacy are core components of critical consciousness as an approach to
youth political development.
The political consciousness and action of Latina/o immigrants is the
subject of the next chapter. Author Hinda Seif illustrates several ways in
which attention to the political activities of this group enrich the fi eld of
youth civic engagement. First, although undocumented immigrants are, in
principle, the object of anti-immigrant discourse and policies, discrimina-
tion also is leveled at Latina/os who are citizens of the United States or
legal residents because of their shared cultural/ethnic identity. Thus,
Latina/o youth, regardless of their legal status, have a vested interest in a
shared political cause. Second, attention to the forms that immigrants’
engagement takes expands the concept of civic participation. Although
immigrant youth may not be eligible to vote, many volunteer in their
communities and mediate between their cultural group and mainstream
culture, often interpreting policy and the law for older members of their
ethnic group. The high level of young Latina/o participation in protests
against anti-immigrant legislation belies assertions that they are politically
disengaged. Finally, Seif raises a developmental argument about the dawn-
ing of political consciousness in this group. Whereas they are guaranteed
rights to public education in childhood, they are excluded from other
routes to citizenship upon graduation from high school. Attaining the
American dream via access to education has become the political cause
uniting Latina/o youth and lobbying for DREAM legislation has resulted
in many becoming political leaders, symbols for younger and older
The last two chapters move beyond the United States. First, Robert
Serpell, Paul Mumba, and Tamara Chansa-Kabali describe an innovative
elementary curriculum in a rural community in Zambia and document
the long-term impact on social responsibility in young adulthood. The
Child-to-Child (CtC) curriculum focuses on health education and prac-
tices that enable children to assume responsibility for the health of
younger peers. President Kenneth Kaunda officially launched the program
in Zambia with a call for all children to consider themselves champions of
people’s health. The curriculum builds on the common practices of many
African cultures of assigning children responsibilities for the community
early in life. Mumba describes the democratic practices that he adopted as
a teacher of the CtC curriculum including mixed-gender peer groups
that emphasized interdependence in learning; gender neutrality in the
allocation of tasks and leadership; group collaboration and evaluations
based on group performance, which encouraged faster learners to help
slower students; children’s rights to voice and to disagree with one
another; and opportunities for contributing to the nurturant care of
younger children and for engagement in public service. The authors end
their chapter with a summary of their follow-up research with young
adults seventeen years after completing the CtC program. Participants
reported that involvement in CtC promoted their personal agency, cooper-
ative disposition, attitudes toward gender equality, and civic responsibility
in early adulthood.
The volume closes with a chapter by Constance Flanagan, M. Loreto
Martinez, Patricio Cumsille, and Tsakani Ngomane. Drawing from studies
and historical events in many parts of the majority world, these authors
argue that there are certain universal aspects of the civic domain in youth
development. These include the primacy of collective action for forming
political identities and ideas and the greater heterogeneity of encounters
in the civic when compared to other activity domains; the groupways or
accumulated opportunities for acting over the course of childhood and
adolescence due to the groups (cultural, gender, social class, caste, etc.) to
which a young person belongs; and the role of mediating institutions
(schools, community-based organizations, etc.) as spaces where the
younger generation’s collective actions contribute to political stability and
change. The authors argue that theory in the broader field of youth devel-
opment could be enriched by systematically attending to these common
elements of the civic domain.
The chapters in this volume have in common a set of understandings that
are drawn from the contemporary scholarship on positive youth develop-
ment and civic engagement. For example, all of the authors embrace per-
spectives on young people as societal assets that should be supported to
develop to their greatest potential, rather than treated as latent problems
or sheltered from interactions with their communities. All of the authors
argue for more intergenerational and inclusive public policies and prac-
tices in community and organizational settings. Moreover, all authors
share the perspective that societies are enhanced when young people are
able to participate and contribute in meaningful ways. These core under-
standings have been steadily gaining wider acceptance, not only in the
study of childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood, but also in
practice across many fields and settings.
However, the chapters in this volume also go further by pointing to
emerging directions within the young field of youth civic development.
Drawing out the various strands from this issue, we believe that there are
cases to be made for several pertinent and emerging directions for theory,
research, and action. First, issues of justice and power continue to dwell at
the margins of the larger discussions on positive youth development and
the most prevalent models for youth civic engagement (e.g., service learn-
ing, volunteering). More of these models, and more of the empirical and
theoretical work on positive youth development, should consider the
implications of systematic injustices and the possibilities for building
power among marginalized groups and solidarity across lines of difference.
Second, the majority world should feature more prominently in research on
youth civic development—for theory’s sake, if not for the simple reason
that the majority world is home to the vast majority of young people. Third,
the challenges faced by marginalized populations in both the majority and
minority worlds should become the focus of more action-oriented work on
positive youth development and civic engagement. Growing inequalities
mean that the need is ever greater for models that engage young people in
the task of addressing social and political challenges through democratic
action. More of the research on youth development and civic engagement
should meet these challenges head on (Watts & Flanagan, 2007).
The contributions of the volume to theory also derive from the fact
that the authors take seriously Kurt Lewin’s (1951) commitment to action
research and his appreciation that both theory and practice are enriched
when scholars and practitioners collaborate in defining the questions and
methods of inquiry. Lewin’s observation is now six decades old but still
resonates today:
Many psychologists working today in an applied field are keenly aware of
the need for close cooperation between theoretical and applied psychology.
This can be accomplished in psychology, as it has been accomplished in
physics, if the theorist does not look toward applied problems with high-
brow aversion or with a fear of social problems, and if the applied psycholo-
gist realizes that there is nothing so practical as a good theory. (p. 169)
The intimate connection between theory and practice is a common
deno minator in these chapters. For example, youth organizing is based on
an integration of community-based practice with scholarship and analysis
of the practice. Theory about social change in the gender attitudes of
young adults in Zambia emerges from a careful analysis of the practice in
the CtC curriculum that tried to change those attitudes.
Through this interconnected view of research and practice, the chap-
ters in this volume also identify applications to practice. These are relevant
across the full spectrum of youth-oriented and intergenerational settings
(e.g., educational institutions, after-school programs, nonprofi t organiza-
tions) and the policies that support this work. Critical consciousness (Watts,
Diemer & Voight, this volume) and social responsibility (Wray-Lake
& Syvertsen, this volume) provide two conceptual anchor points for prac-
tice. In addition, both concepts represent potential target outcomes for
youth programming and education. Experiential education and participa-
tory action research are two of the most promising mechanisms for develop-
ing social responsibility and critical consciousness. Examples of programs
and settings that incorporate these mechanisms include youth organizing
initiatives like those described by Christens and Kirshner, youth-led curri-
cula like the CtC curriculum described in the chapter by Serpell, Mumba,
and Chansa-Kabali, and involvement in social movements like the young
leaders organizing for immigrant rights described in the chapter by Seif.
Further, the more common settings that youth inhabit (e.g., schools, sports
teams, and other extracurricular activities) can become more explicit in
their intent to cultivate civic development including social responsibility
and critical consciousness.
Besides practice, theories of youth development also are enriched by
attention to the civic domain. As Flanagan, Martinez, Cumsille, and Ngo-
mane discuss, there are universal aspects of this domain that transcend
particular polities and cultures. Scholarly attention to the collective
actions of young people working to make their schools or their nations
more inclusive may yield new insights into ways that people fulfi ll the
human need to belong. Exposure to more heterogeneous people and per-
spectives through civic action may enhance adolescents’ intellectual and
reflective capacities. Moreover, understanding why young people engage
in civic work may expand theories of motivation and purpose. In particu-
lar, attention to the civic actions of young people who are all too often
absent from research should expand our paradigms of youth development
and the way we frame our inquiries. This volume of New Directions in
Child and Adolescent Development signifies that youth civic engagement
has come of age as an important domain of youth development. Nonethe-
less, in its relatively short life span, the field has evolved and the future
is wide open.
Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Hamilton, S. F., & Sesma Jr., A. (2006). Positive youth
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(Eds.), Handbook of child psychology. Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development
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ciplinary perspective. In C. A. Flanagan & B. D. Christens (Eds.), Youth civic devel-
opment: Work at the cutting edge. New Directions for Child and Adolescent
Development, 134, 27–41.
Flanagan, C. A., Martinez, M. L., Cumsille, P., & Ngomane, T. (2011). Youth civic
development: Theorizing a domain with evidence from different cultural contexts.
In C. A. Flanagan & B. D. Christens (Eds.), Youth civic development: Work at the
cutting edge. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 134, 95–109.
Furco, A., & Root, S. (2010). Research demonstrates the value of service learning.
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CONSTANCE A. FLANAGAN is professor of human ecology at the University of
Wisconsin–Madison. E-mail: cafl
BRIAN D. CHRISTENS is assistant professor of human ecology at the University
of Wisconsin–Madison. E-mail:
... • Engage local-level adult experts (if possible) to problem-solve alongside the students (e.g., local businesses that are interested in adopting more sustainable practices, local Stormwater manager for the town, Sustainability coordinator for the townif there is one, etc.) • Use Y-APs to provide training for kids as well as avenues to amplify their voice o Focus adult roles on teaching kids what it is like to be a scientist/leader; focus student roles on exposing adult leaders to new solutions generated by kids Local civic action partners (non-profit organizations, etc.), curriculum developers, teachers, professional learning networks of teachers, teaching communities of practice, etc. (Benson et al., 2006;Evans and Prilleltensky, 2007;Flanagan and Christens, 2011;Hamilton and Hamilton, 2005;Shiller, 2013;Zeldin et al., 2013) based learning, such as strengthening community bonds and building appreciation for the natural world (Sobel, 2004). The local marine debris focus can be linked to the global context through experiential learning, which incorporates action, reflection, conceptualization, and application (Kolb, 1984). ...
... Higher levels of mutuality, equity, and respect between the youth and adults typically yield better outcomes for Y-APs (Zeldin et al., 2013). Effective Y-APs can propagate healthy communities by motivating existing community leaders and creating future community leaders, as youth who experience voice and power in intergenerational networks learn to see themselves as powerful civic actors (Flanagan and Christens, 2011) and have a stronger overall sense of community going forward (Evans and Prilleltensky, 2007). ...
Youth can impact environmental attitudes and behaviors among adults. Indeed, research on intergenerational learning has demonstrated the influence of young people on adults in their lives for myriad environmental topics. Intergenerational learning (IGL) refers to the bidirectional transfer of knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors from children to their parents or other adults and vice versa. We suggest an educational framework wherein K-12 marine debris education designed to maximize IGL may be a strategy to accelerate interdisciplinary, community-level solutions to marine debris. Although technical strategies continue to be developed to address the marine debris crisis, even the most strictly technical of these benefit from social support. Here, we present 10 Best Practices grounded in educational, IGL, and youth civic engagement literature to promote marine debris solutions. We describe how integrating IGL and civic engagement into K-12-based marine debris curricula may start a virtuous circle benefiting teachers, students, families, communities, and the ocean
... This generation consequently represents an important cohort for the study of democratic socialisation and participation (Mattes 2012). This is all the more true as consistent research findings seem to indicate apparent apathy and civic disengagement among the youthin older democracies in Europe and in the United States of America (USA) (Flanagan and Christens 2011;Henn and Foard 2014;Pontes, Henn, and Griffiths 2019) as well as in post-colonial African democracies (Biney and Amoateng 2019;Resnick and Casale 2014). Research also points to similar emerging trends in South Africa (Bosch 2013;Oyedemi and Mahlatji 2016). ...
... Some regarded their vote as a valued right for which former generations had struggled. However, in accordance with the results of international research (Flanagan and Christens 2011;Henn and Foard 2014;Pontes, Henn, and Griffiths 2019), as well as research in other African countries (Biney and Amoateng 2019;Resnick and Casale 2014), there was also a group of mostly black participants who indicated intentions not to vote. Only in a minority of cases can these intentions be interpreted as apathy and withdrawal from politics. ...
Since the advent of democracy in South Africa in 1994, a new generation of ‘Born Frees’ have been able to vote. With a worldwide decrease in formal political engagement and a rise in alternative forms of political participation among the youth, this qualitative study investigates political engagement among youth from the Pretoria area. Six focus groups were conducted from 2014 to 2018. The results indicate that post-apartheid youth are not a monolithic group. Some youth were enthusiastic and regarded voting as a rite of passage to adulthood. Voting was, furthermore, perceived as a valued right, an obligation due to those who struggled against apartheid, and a way to influence society. However, some black participants voiced apathy and/or disillusionment with the current (older) political leadership and parties. Not voting was perceived as a conscious act of political opposition. Conclusions are drawn about the implications for the South African democracy.
... For instance, freedom of speech and non-discrimination are two values that can be competing, as freedom of speech might include opinions that are discriminating toward particular groups (Barendt, 2005). For this reason, democratic issues-situations that encompass competing democratic values as well as perspectives on feasible solutions-are inherent to democracy (Flanagan and Christens, 2011;Thomassen, 1995;Van der Meer, 2017). In this regard, it is important that adolescents not only support democratic values, but also develop views on democratic issues that include considering multiple democratic values (Banks, 2004;Mouffe, 2009;Pennock, 1979;Protho and Grigg, 1960;Thomassen, 2007). ...
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The views young people have towards democratic values shape their views in later life. However, the values that are fundamental to democracy, such as majority rule and minority rights, are often competing. This study aims to provide insight into the ways adolescents view democratic issues in which democratic values are competing. To do so, three democratic issues with varying conditions were designed, and discussed during interviews with students in vocational education. The results show that most adolescents consider both democratic values that underlie an issue. Furthermore, as the conditions in which the issues take place were altered during the interviews, adolescents explicitly evaluated different perspectives and starting shifting between both values. The findings of this study show that adolescents' views on democratic issues are layered, and include considering multiple democratic values and taking account of the conditions in which these are situated.
... Much has been studied about the above and other aspects of citizenship. There is now a consolidated body of studies from a wide range of disciplines and contexts (Callahan 2007;Flanagan and Christens 2011). In sum, it can be said that citizenship research deals with three main issues: What is citizenship and in what context? ...
... Developing certain skills in youth such as critical consciousness, critical analysis and leadership can help them develop an active role in the community (Hancock, 1994). Critical consciousness was associated with prosocial actions and civic engagement (Flanagan & Christens, 2011;Diemer & Li, 2011). Recent research has not yet examined which specific component of critical consciousness impacts social action. ...
... Most of today's young people are left to their interests and have almost no opportunity to show civic activity, participate in political activities, manage society, engage in entrepreneurship, or find a job following their desires, needs, and interests (Flanagan, Levine: 2010;Flanagan, Christens: 2011;Henn, Foard: 2014;Shaw et al.: 2014;Zelenkov et al.: 2020). ...
The article is devoted to the consideration of youth and youth policy as factors of terrorism in the 21st century. The authors have identified factors that increase the effectiveness of recruiters of terrorist organizations in attracting young people, as well as formulated and justified the principles of improving the effectiveness of youth policy in the framework of anti-terrorist activities of the authorities. According to the authors, an important factor in the radicalization of young people is the low level of education in the country. The authors draw attention to the fact that the low level of education does not create opportunities for the development of young people. This, in turn, leads to a radicalization of the relationship between the authorities and students. If graduates are unable to find jobs that meet their expectations, then the risk of radicalization of young people increases. A good education not only allows the state to train qualified specialists, which effectively affects the social and economic development of society. Specialists in demand do not belong to social groups prone to violent and radical actions in relation to other citizens, both within the country and abroad. Therefore, it is necessary, on the one hand, to develop educational programs that allow college and university graduates to be in demand in the labor market, constantly improve their skills, and increase the level of knowledge. On the other hand, it is necessary to develop students' skills, such as critical thinking, creativity, respect for the institutions of society, and skills in solving social and professional problems.
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Teori Turbulensi Intermiten dari Mandelbrot tentang harmoni dualitas realitas ketidaksinambungan dalam analisis kebijakan menjadi analogi yang mencerminkan chaos dan order sebagai kuantum transenden, dimana potensi dan probabilitas yang berkaitan dengan perubahan ataupun keberlanjutan kebijakan sangat dimungkinkan melalui critical juncture dalam perlintasan waktu tertentu. Proses penelitian dengan pendekatan institusionalisme historis ini, mempunyai tujuan krusial menjalankan penyelidikan signifikansi dan implikasi dari trajektori perubahan dan keberlanjutan kebijakan kepemudaan pada lintasan waktu tertentu sebagai analisis perkembangan kelembagaan dalam menunjang transformasi pelayanan kepemudaan di Kabupaten Cianjur yang lebih kontekstual. Adapun hasil dari penelitian ini merepresentasikan bahwa: (1) Bahwa setiap implementor dari kebijakan kepemudaan baik Disparpora, DPD KNPI, Karang Taruna Kabupaten maupun Gerakan Pramuka Kwartir Cabang Cianjur tidak secara ketat mencerminkan resistensi terhadap perubahan, yang biasa ditemukan sebagai konsekuensi rasional dari jalur kelaziman. (2) Sekalipun kondisi akumulasi bukti ilmiah, kebuntuan kebijakan kepemudaan dan guncangan bersifat eksternal telah memenuhi kualifikasi sebagai mekanisme dari perubahan kebijakan, namun tidak terdapat conjunctures yang menjadi hubungan interaksi antara seluruh implementor menimbang terdapat arah perubahan lingkungan strategis. (3) Melalui proyeksi perlintasan waktu empat tahun terakhir, tidak dapat diidentifikasi transaksi aktual persebaran ide perubahan kebijakan kepemudaan baik secara koersif maupun kooptatif dalam analisis jaringan sebagai pemerintahan. (4) Implementasi kebijakan sebagai kebijakan distingtif dari setiap implementor dengan trajektori repetitif pada perlintasan waktu tersebut, secara holistik menjadi variabel pengukuran dari inisiasi dan reproduksi kebijakan yang menunjukan seluruh implementor tidak mengalami self-reinforcing dan positive feedback dari berbagai dinamika kelembagaan. Bahwa implikasi dari penelitian ini telah menghadirkan pemetaan terkait konstruksi utama transformasi kebijakan kepemudaan berbasis analisis perkembangan kelembagaan.
Although youth advisory structures (YASs) have proliferated internationally to facilitate the voice of young people, little is known about the practices of such groups, especially in the United States. To address this gap of knowledge, this study describes the findings of a scoping review of scholarly research on YAS in the United States. The review found that although the use of YAS is increasing, current scholarship offers little information about YAS processes or how youth are engaged. Most YAS in the review partnered with marginalized young people to inform research and programming around sensitive health topics, such as human immunodeficiency virus prevention. Youth who participated in YAS experienced positive outcomes such as leadership and skill development, healthier decision-making, and confidence. Although most studies involved youth in minimal ways, there is a growing body of literature where youth are engaged in long-term partnerships that support positive youth development. This review details other key characteristics of YAS and provides recommendations for best practices, such as building consensus around terms used to refer to YAS and promoting the dissemination of process details around YAS facilitation.
A challenge of early adolescence is the “developmental mismatch” between adolescents’ need for autonomy and the lack of opportunities to enact maturity via adult-like roles. We identified ways that young people enact maturity, from a youth perspective via focus groups (N = 41, aged 11–17 years), and used data to develop and test a new measure of enacting maturity (EM) using an online survey (N = 420; aged 11–18 years; 58.6% female; 49.5% White). Exploratory factor analysis suggested four internally consistent factors: Independence, Responsibility, Leadership, and Communication; confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a 21-item scale with adequate model fit. Independence was associated with more substance use and general risk taking while Responsibility and Communication were associated with less substance use and general risk taking. The EM measure is an important first step to understanding if adolescents have opportunities to enact maturity and how this relates to key developmental outcomes.
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It has been widely argued that effective citizenship education should focus on more than mere teaching of civic knowledge, but should provide a wider range of opportunities for the experience of participation and development of skills, efficacy and interest instrumental to active citizenship. Opportunities for critical reflection such as open classroom discussions, fairness at school, institutional efficacy and student participation at school activities have been linked to the development of civic and political attitudes. The capacity of school education to provide opportunities for critical reflection on students’ participative experiences, however, has not been explored empirically sufficiently. This paper aims to identify the contribution of different school characteristics to the development of civic and political attitudes and their impact on students’ level of participation in civic activities through a mixed methods study. Questionnaire data collected in two waves with 685 adolescents from Italy were analyzed through structural equation modeling to test the effects of school characteristics at Time 1 (democratic climate, student participation and critical reflection) on civic participation at Time 2, mediated by institutional trust, civic efficacy and political interest. In order to explore the quantitative findings and examine further students’ perceptions of the school aspects that support their civic involvement, focus group discussions were conducted with students from secondary schools with different tracks.The results highlight the importance of opportunities for active involvement in school and critical reflection in fostering political interest, efficacy and civic participation. Democratic school climate was found to impact institutional trust and civic efficacy, but not participation. Students’ accounts of schools’ citizenship education activities highlight further the need for a participative environment that rises above information transmission by inviting critical reflection and giving value to students’ active involvement in the institution.
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Significant studies point to to the value of service learning, but the field needs more experimental research to firmly establish the value of this approach.
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This chapter describes positive youth development (PYD) as an emerging arena of applied developmental science. We show how PYD is both rooted in the theoretical traditions of developmental psychology, and fueled by newer emphases on nurturing the potentialities of youth more than addressing their supposed deficits, and on addressing and helping to shape the roles of developmental contexts, especially that of the community, and youth themselves as agents of their own development. We begin with an historical overview and a presentation on major conceptual frameworks, including the framework of developmental assets, which have significantly influenced PYD theory, research, and programs. The following section of the chapter poses seven broad hypotheses that represent the scientific foundation of PYD (e.g., contexts can be intentionally altered to enhance developmental success and changes in the context change the person), and reviews a wide array of studies that lends support to the hypotheses. After demonstrating the general utility of these hypotheses for understanding and promoting positive development in all youth, we review research that illustrates differences in developmental paths and outcomes across youth diversity in gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The chapter ends by suggesting those areas of youth development knowledge where the field is relatively strong (e.g., taxonomies of factors that are correlated with positive outcomes), and those areas where significantly more research is needed (e.g., theories of change that articulate how youth, adults, and community systems move toward greater developmental attentiveness). We conclude by posing a number of theoretical questions, research challenges, and applied needs to be addressed if the promise of PYD as both a scientific and applied field is to be fully realized.
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In this article, we take a critical look at the growing interest in U.S. political participation as it exists in the youth civic engagement literature. Our critique draws from principles of liberation and developmental psychology, and from the incisive writings of experts in youth organizing. Youth Organizing evolved from the Positive Youth Development (PYD) and Community Youth Development (CYD) perspectives but its addition of social justice activism is consistent with liberation psychology. The essence of our critique is this: Although there is certainly value in the current civic engagement literature, much of it focuses on the maintenance of social and political institutions rather than on action for social justice. To promote a better balance, and one more relevant to the lives of youth of color and other marginalized young people, we offer a framework for empirical research on youth sociopolitical development. The focus is on the relationship between social analysis (including critical consciousness) and societal involvement that includes the full range of service and political work. Because youth is the focus, we also include a brief discussion of a distinctive challenge that adults face in doing just work with young people—namely, adultism. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comm Psychol 35: 779–792, 2007.
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The authors use examples of youth civic engagement from Chile, South Africa, Central/Eastern Europe, and the United States--and also emphasize diversities among youth from different subgroups within countries--to illustrate common elements of the civic domain of youth development. These include the primacy of collective activity for forming political identities and ideas and the greater heterogeneity of civic compared to other discretionary activities, the groupways or accumulated opportunities for acting due to the groups (social class, gender, ethnic, caste, etc.) to which a young person belongs, and the role of mediating institutions (schools, community-based organizations, etc.) as spaces where youths' actions contribute to political stability and change.
The challenges for young people making the transition to adulthood are greater today than ever before. Globalization, with its power to reach across national boundaries and into the smallest communities, carries with it the transformative power of new markets and new technology. At the same time, globalization brings with it new ideas and lifestyles that can conflict with traditional norms and values. And while the economic benefits are potentially enormous, the actual course of globalization has not been without its critics who charge that, to date, the gains have been very unevenly distributed, generating a new set of problems associated with rising inequality and social polarization. Regardless of how the globalization debate is resolved, it is clear that as broad global forces transform the world in which the next generation will live and work, the choices that today's young people make or others make on their behalf will facilitate or constrain their success as adults. Traditional expectations regarding future employment prospects and life experiences are no longer valid. Growing Up Global examines how the transition to adulthood is changing in developing countries, and what the implications of these changes might be for those responsible for designing youth policies and programs, in particular, those affecting adolescent reproductive health. The report sets forth a framework that identifies criteria for successful transitions in the context of contemporary global changes for five key adult roles: adult worker, citizen and community participant, spouse, parent, and household manager. © 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Conference Paper
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An innovative curriculum designed to foster the development of social responsibility among pre-adolescent children was introduced at a rural Zambian primary school. The curriculum invoked Child-to-Child principles focusing on health education, advancing a synthesis of Western psychological theories and African cultural traditions. The teacher sought to democratize the educational process through cooperative learning in mixed-gender, mixed-social-class, and mixed-ability study groups. Learners engaged in community service activities and contributed to the nurturant care of younger children. Young adults interviewed seventeen years after completing the program recalled their experience and reflected on how it had promoted their personal agency, cooperative disposition, and civic responsibility in early adulthood.