Current and past cigarette smoking significantly increase risk for microscopic colitis

Division of Gastroenterology, University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois. .
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (Impact Factor: 4.46). 10/2012; 18(10):1835-41. DOI: 10.1002/ibd.22838
Source: PubMed


Cigarette smoking is an important environmental factor affecting inflammatory bowel disease. The role of smoking has not been rigorously studied in microscopic colitis (MC). The aim of this study was to compare the association of cigarette smoking in individuals with MC compared to a control population without MC.
We reviewed the records of patients with a clinical and histologic diagnosis of collagenous colitis (CC) or lymphocytic colitis (LC). Clinical history, including alcohol and smoking status at the time of diagnosis of MC, were reviewed. In this case-control study, age- and gender-matched patients without diarrhea presenting for outpatient colonoscopy served as the control population.
We analyzed a total of 340 patients with MC: 124 with CC and 216 with LC. Overall, any smoking status (former or current) was associated with MC (odds ratio [OR] 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-2.88). This risk was more prominent in current smokers (adjusted OR 5.36, 3.81, and 4.37 for CC, LC, and all MC, respectively, 95% CI all greater than 1). The association of smoking was not significantly affected by gender or average alcohol consumption.
In our study population, cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the development of both forms of microscopic colitis. There were no significant differences between LC and CC, and current smoking and the development of microscopic colitis affected men and women similarly. We feel that these data are sufficient to discuss the potential risks of tobacco use in patients with microscopic colitis. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012).

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Available from: Laura K Bianchi, Sep 04, 2014
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    • "In one study, alcohol consumption was higher in patients with MC compared with healthy controls [Yen et al. 2012]. Nevertheless, wine drinking did not tend to increase the risk of developing MC. "
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    ABSTRACT: Microscopic colitis (MC) is described as an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic, bloodless diarrhea with normal or close to normal endoscopic findings. Histopathological examination reveals two subtypes: collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC), which are indistinguishable clinically. The disease debuts typically in middle-aged patients, but can occur at all ages, including children. A female predominance is found in both CC and LC, but is not confirmed by others in LC. The etiology is unclear, but the disease has been assumed to be of autoimmune origin. However, several etiologies may render a microscopic inflammation in the mucosa; this is a common, universal reaction to a variety of irritants in contact with the intestinal lumen. Furthermore, some patients with a microscopic inflammation in their colonic mucosa have no symptoms, or are suffering from constipation or abdominal pain, rather than diarrhea. Recently, a discussion was initiated calling into question the overdiagnosing of symptoms and pointing out the danger of exacerbating people's perception of their ailments, of weakening their eligibility in health insurance, of overprescription of drugs, and thus the increasing cost to the society of health care. In the light of this discussion, this review will highlight histopathological and clinical features of MC, and discuss the diagnosis and management of this disease. Perhaps, the intestinal mucosa has no other mode by which to react than an inflammatory response, irrespective of the presence or absence of autoimmunity. Thus, to better identify and classify subgroups of MC, and to clarify and correctly handle the inflammatory changes, this field of research stands to benefit from a review of the results and experience gained to date.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
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    • "Of environmental factors, smoking is the best-documented risk factor for MC. Three studies have consistently shown that smoking is associated with both CC and LC.103–105 Smokers developed their disease >10 years earlier than nonsmokers, but smoking did not influence subsequent disease course.104,106 "
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    ABSTRACT: Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis, together constituting microscopic colitis, are common causes of chronic diarrhea. They are characterized clinically by chronic nonbloody diarrhea and a macroscopically normal colonic mucosa where characteristic histopathological findings are seen. Previously considered rare, they now have emerged as common disorders that need to be considered in the investigation of the patient with chronic diarrhea. The annual incidence of each disorder is five to ten per 100,000 inhabitants, with a peak incidence in 60- to 70-year-old individuals and a predominance of female patients in collagenous colitis. The etiology and pathophysiology are not well understood, and the current view suggests an uncontrolled mucosal immune reaction to various luminal agents in predisposed individuals. Clinical symptoms comprise chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and fecal incontinence that may impair the patient's health-related quality of life. An association is reported with other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, thyroid disorders, diabetes mellitus, and arthritis. The best-documented treatment, both short-term and long-term, is budesonide, which induces clinical remission in up to 80% of patients after 8 weeks' treatment. However, after successful budesonide therapy is ended, recurrence of clinical symptoms is common, and the best possible long-term management deserves further study. The long-term prognosis is good, and the risk of complications, including colonic cancer, is low. We present an update of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of microscopic colitis.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
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    • "Previous studies have shown a correlation between past and current smoking and MC, in analogy with other subgroups of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [8-10]. We have recently shown that smoking impairs gastrointestinal- and psychological well-being in MC patients and is associated with IBS-like symptoms in addition to MC [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Microscopic colitis (MC) induces gastrointestinal symptoms, which are partly overlapping with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), predominately in middle-aged and elderly women. The etiology is unknown, but association with smoking has been found. The aim of this study was to examine whether the increased risk for smokers to develop MC is a true association, or rather the result of confounding factors. Therefore, patients suffering from MC and population-based controls from the same geographic area were studied regarding smoking- and alcohol habits, and other simultaneous, lifestyle factors, concerning the clinical expression of the disease. Women at the age of 73 years or younger, who had been treated for biopsy-verified MC at any of the Departments of Gastroenterology in Skane, between 2002 and 2010, were invited to the study (240 patients). Women (737) from the population-based prospective cohort study, Malmo Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), served as controls. A self-administered questionnaire about lifestyle factors, gastrointestinal symptoms, medical conditions and medication at the time for the study was sent by post. Altogether, 131 women with MC could be included after age-matching with controls (median age 56 years) and exclusion of secondary MC. Patients were divided into persistent MC (MC1) and transient MC (MC2). Past smoking was associated with increased risk to develop MC2 (OR = 2.67, 95 CI = 1.15-6.23), whereas current smoking was associated with increased risk to develop MC1 (OR = 3.18, 95 CI = 1.57-6.42). Concomitant symptoms of IBS were associated with smoking (OR = 4.24, 95 CI = 1.92-9.32). Alcohol drinking had no association with MC or IBS. The results suggest that past smoking is associated with transient MC, whereas current smoking is associated with persistent MC. Smoking is associated with MC patients with concomitant IBS-like symptoms.
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