Article

Modified Natural Clinoptilolite Detoxifies Small Mammal’s Organism Loaded with Lead I. Lead Disposition and Kinetic Model for Lead Bioaccumulation

Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
Biological trace element research (Impact Factor: 1.75). 12/2011; 147(1-3):180-8. DOI: 10.1007/s12011-011-9278-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Zeolites, especially clinoptilolites, have wide application in removing heavy metals from different solutions and wastewater. The detoxification capacity of the clinoptilolite sorbent KLS-10-MA, a modified natural Bulgarian zeolite, applied as a food supplement in conditions of an ecotoxicological experiment with conventional food and lead was demonstrated for the first time. Laboratory mice, inbred imprinting control region strain, were used in a 90-day ecotoxicological experiment. Animals were divided into four experimental groups. Lead bioaccumulations in exposed and non-supplemented/supplemented with KLS-10-MA animals were compared. As additional control, healthy animals non-exposed to Pb were fed with conventional forage mixed with 12.5% KLS-10-MA. The dietary inclusion of the sorbent reduced Pb concentrations in exposed and supplemented mice by 84%, 89%, 91%, 77%, and 88% in carcass, liver, kidneys, bones, and feces, respectively. A mathematical model was proposed to outline the common trends of bone Pb bioaccumulation in exposed and non-supplemented/supplemented animals. Characteristic parameters of the kinetics of Pb concentrations were determined. Based on the model, the coefficient of absorption of Pb by gastrointestinal mucosa in the supplemented mice was found-η = 3.53% (versus η = 15% in non-supplemented ones). The present study clearly indicates that there is a realistic perspective to create a new drug based on modified natural clinoptilolites in cases of chronic heavy metal intoxication, without negatively affecting the environment.

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    • "They are used for protein adsorption, separation or enzyme immobilization and have been suggested as drug support systems, antibacterial agent release matrices or bacteria loading supports3456789. Clinoptilolite and its modified forms were used to protect animals from feed-originating toxins by adsorbing toxic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract and preventing their passage into the circulatory system1011121314. Purified natural clinoptilolite was reported to be harmless to the human body and recommended as an antidiarrheal drug and as antiacid agent for humans suffering from hyperacidity and showed no toxic or biological hazards[5,6,15]. "

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    ABSTRACT: The detoxification capacity of the clinoptilolite modification KLS-10-MA used as food additive in small mammals, chronically lead-exposed, was proven for the first time. The modified clinoptilolite was prepared based on natural Bulgarian clinoptilolite deposits. As a powder, it was mechanically mixed at 12.5% concentration with the conventional forage for small rodents. Lead in the form of aqueous solution of Pb(NO(3))(2) was diluted in the drinking water. In the ecotoxicological experiment covering 90 days, imprinting control region laboratory mice were used. They were allocated into four groups: group 1, (control): animals fed with conventional food for small rodents and water; group 2: animals fed with conventional food + clinosorbent KLS-10-MA and water; group 3: animals fed with conventional food and water + Pb(NO(3))(2); and group 4: animals fed with conventional food + KLS-10-MA and water + Pb(NO(3))(2). A group of non-exposed healthy animals was fed with conventional forage mixed with KLS-10-MA to prove eventual toxicity of the sorbent and influence on growth performance. The changes in the chromosome structure, mitotic index, erythrocyte form, erythropoiesis, and body weight gain were recorded. On day 90, the following relations were established: Pb-exposed and clinoptilolite-supplemented mice exhibited 2.3-fold lower chromosome aberrations frequency, 2.5-fold higher mitotic index, and 1.5-fold higher percentage normal erythrocytes 1.3-fold higher body weight compared to Pb-exposed and unsupplemented animals. The obtained data showed that the sorbent is practically non-toxic. The results of the present study encourage a further elaboration of a reliable drug based on the tested substance in the cases of chronic lead intoxication.
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