Short Report: Rapid-Test Based Identification of Influenza as an Etiology of Acute Febrile Illness in Cambodia

U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene (Impact Factor: 2.7). 12/2011; 85(6):1144-5. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0390
Source: PubMed


Influenza can be manifested as an acute febrile illness, with symptoms similar to many pathogens endemic to Cambodia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Quickvue influenza A+B rapid test to identify the etiology of acute febrile illness in Cambodia. During December 2006-May 2008, patients enrolled in a study to identify the etiology of acute febrile illnesses were tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and Quickvue influenza A+B rapid test. The prevalence of influenza was 19.7% by RT-PCR. Compared with RT-PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 52.1% and 92.5%, respectively. The influenza rapid test identified the etiology in 10.2% of enrollees and ≥ 35% during peak times of influenza activity. This study suggests that rapid influenza tests may be useful during peak times of influenza activity in an area where several different etiologies can present as an acute febrile illness.

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    ABSTRACT: Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) may be useful during institutional respiratory disease outbreaks to identify influenza and enable antivirals to be rapidly administered to patients and for the prophylactic treatment of those exposed to the virus but not yet symptomatic. The performance of RIDTs at the outbreak level is not well documented in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of RIDTs in comparison with that of real-time reverse transcription (rRT)-PCR in the context of institutional respiratory disease outbreaks. This study included outbreak-related respiratory specimens tested for influenza virus at Public Health Ontario Laboratories by both RIDT and rRT-PCR, from 1 September 2010 to 30 April 2013. At the outbreak level, performance testing of RIDTs compared to rRT-PCR for the detection of any influenza virus type demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 76.5%, a specificity of 99.7%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 99.5%, and a negative predictive value of 85.3%. Because of their high specificity and PPV, even outside of the influenza season, RIDTs can play a role in screening for influenza virus in outbreaks and instituting antiviral therapy in a timely manner when positive. RIDTs can also be useful in remote settings where molecular virology testing is not easily accessible. Suboptimal sensitivity of RIDTs can be addressed by the use of molecular testing. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
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