Goldmann E, Aiello A, Uddin M, Delva J, Koenen K, Gant LM et al. Pervasive exposure to violence and posttraumatic stress disorder in a predominantly African American Urban Community: the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study. J Trauma Stress 24: 747-751
Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY 10032, USA. Journal of Traumatic Stress
(Impact Factor: 2.72).
12/2011; 24(6):747-51. DOI: 10.1002/jts.20705
Exposure to traumatic events is common, particularly among economically disadvantaged, urban African Americans. There is, however, scant data on the psychological consequences of exposure to traumatic events in this group. We assessed experience with traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 1,306 randomly selected, African American residents of Detroit. Lifetime prevalence of exposure to at least 1 traumatic event was 87.2% (assault = 51.0%). African Americans from Detroit have a relatively high burden of PTSD; 17.1% of those who experienced a traumatic event met criteria for probable lifetime PTSD. Assaultive violence is pervasive and is more likely to be associated with subsequent PTSD than other types of events. Further efforts to prevent violence and increase access to mental health treatment could reduce the mental health burden in economically disadvantaged urban areas.
Available from: Hilary Marusak
- "First, prior research shows not only that trauma frequency is more extreme in African Americans living in impoverished urban areas, but also that the negative consequences of trauma may be more severe (Alim et al., 2006). For instance, African American urban residents who experience trauma are nearly two times more likely to develop PTSD than their lower risk counterparts (Goldmann et al., 2011). Lower income is also a significant predictor of more severe emotional psychopathology following trauma (Lowe et al., 2014). "
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ABSTRACT: Depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder are linked to altered limbic morphology, dysregulated neuroendocrine function, and heightened amygdala responses to salient social cues. Oxytocin appears to be a potent modulator of amygdala reactivity and neuroendocrine responses to psychosocial stress. Given these stress regulatory effects, there is increasing interest in understanding the role of oxytocin in vulnerability to stress-related clinical disorders. The present study examines the impact of a common functional variant within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene (rs2254298) on structure and function of the amygdala in a high-risk sample of urban, low-income, minority youth with a high incidence of early life stress (ELS). Compared to G/G homozygotes, youth carrying the OXTR A-allele showed increased amygdala volume, reduced behavioral performance, and heightened amygdala response during two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks that involved viewing socially-relevant face stimuli. Higher amygdala response was related to ELS in A-alleles carriers but not G/G homozygotes. These findings underscore a series of relationships among a common oxytocin system gene variant, ELS exposure, and structure and function of the amygdala in early life. Heightened amygdala response to salient social cues in OXTR A-allele carriers may elevate risk for emotional psychopathology by increasing amygdala involvement in disambiguating environmental cues, particularly for individuals with ELS.
Available from: Monica Uddin
- "Details of the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (DNHS) have been previously reported (Uddin et al., 2010; Goldmann et al., 2011; Uddin et al., 2011). "
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ABSTRACT: Background: The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in mental illness is not well understood. Human studies and animal models of depression show elevated brain ER stress response. In addition, some ER stress associated disorders (e.g. cardiovascular disease) show higher rates of depression compared to the general population, raising the possibility that ER stress response contributes to depression risk. It remains unknown, however, if ER stress response is present among individuals suffering from other stress-related mental illness, and whether such a response would be evident in a non-clinical sample. This study tests for systemic changes in ER stress response associated with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among community-dwelling individuals. Methods: We analyzed expression of BiP, EDEM1, CHOP, and XBP1, the major indicators of ER stress response, with real-time PCR in leukocyte-derived RNA samples from 86 participants of the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study. Participants were selected based on the presence of either past year MDD or past year PTSD; controls were age and sex matched.
Available from: Heather A Junkins
- "Individuals without listed landlines or telephones and individuals with only a cell phone listed were invited to participate through a postal mail effort. Participants completed a 40 minute structured telephone interview annually between 2008–2012 to assess perceptions of participants’ neighborhoods, mental and physical health status, social support, exposure to traumatic events, and alcohol and tobacco use; each participant was compensated $25USD [7,8]. All survey participants were offered the opportunity to provide a blood specimen (venipuncture, blood spot, or saliva) for immune and inflammatory marker testing as well as genetic testing of DNA . "
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the PhenX RISING network and the site experiences in the implementation of PhenX measures into ongoing population-based genomic studies.
Eighty PhenX measures were implemented across the seven PhenX RISING groups, thirty-three of which were used at more than two sites, allowing for cross-site collaboration. Each site used between four and 37 individual measures and five of the sites are validating the PhenX measures through comparison with other study measures. Self-administered and computer-based administration modes are being evaluated at several sites which required changes to the original PhenX Toolkit protocols. A network-wide data use agreement was developed to facilitate data sharing and collaboration.
PhenX Toolkit measures have been collected for more than 17,000 participants across the PhenX RISING network. The process of implementation provided information that was used to improve the PhenX Toolkit. The Toolkit was revised to allow researchers to select self- or interviewer administration when creating the data collection worksheets and ranges of specimens necessary to run biological assays has been added to the Toolkit.
The PhenX RISING network has demonstrated that the PhenX Toolkit measures can be implemented successfully in ongoing genomic studies. The next step will be to conduct gene/environment studies.
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