The acquired preparedness risk model applied to smoking in 5th grade children

115 Kastle Hall, Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, KY 40506, United States.
Addictive behaviors (Impact Factor: 2.76). 11/2011; 37(3):331-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.11.005
Source: PubMed


The very early onset of smoking predicts numerous health problems. The authors conducted the first test of one risk model for elementary school age smoking, known as the acquired preparedness (AP) model of risk, in a cross-sectional sample of 309 5th grade children. The model posits that (a) impulsivity-related personality traits contribute to risk for a variety of risky, maladaptive behaviors; (b) smoking expectancies confer risk only for smoking; and (c) the personality traits contribute to the formation of high risk expectancies for reinforcement from smoking, which in turn increases the likelihood of early onset smoking. The model was supported: the high-risk personality traits distinguished children engaging in any risky, maladaptive behavior from other children, and the smoking expectancies differentiated smokers from all other children. The relationship between personality tendencies to act rashly when experiencing intense positive or negative emotions and smoker status was partially mediated by expectancies for reinforcement from smoking. This model should be investigated longitudinally.

7 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alcohol and tobacco use are strongly associated, particularly in younger populations, and concurrent use may encourage progression toward dependence on both substances. Impulsivity has been linked to the use of alcohol and tobacco individually, but has not been studied in terms of its association with use of both. This study tested the hypothesis that the effects of impulsivity (sensation seeking and negative urgency) on smoking initiation in a sample of college students (n = 400) would be mediated by alcohol consumption. We also predicted that sensation seeking and negative urgency would predict alcohol and cigarette use and overlap among initiators. Sensation seeking and negative urgency both predicted smoking initiation, but only the former effect was mediated by alcohol use. Among initiators, sensation seeking was associated with more frequent alcohol use as well as more frequent overlap between alcohol and tobacco use but not with smoking frequency. Higher negative urgency was associated with more frequent smoking, but not with alcohol use or alcohol/tobacco overlap. Findings are consistent with previous research in college samples and suggest the existence of multiple pathways to alcohol and tobacco use and co-use in college students.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of psychoactive drugs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity has been a widely explored construct, particularly as a personality-based risk factor for addictive behaviors. The authors review evidence that (a) there is no single impulsivity trait; rather, there are at least five different personality traits that dispose individuals to rash or impulsive action; (b) the five traits predict different behaviors longitudinally; for example, the emotion-based urgency traits predict problematic involvement in several risky behaviors and sensation seeking instead predicts the frequency of engaging in such behaviors; (c) the traits can be measured in preadolescent children; (d) individual differences in the traits among preadolescent children predict the subsequent onset of, and increases in, risky behaviors including alcohol use; (e) the traits may operate by biasing the learning process, such that high-risk traits make high-risk learning more likely, thus leading to maladaptive behavior; (f) the emotion-based urgency traits may contribute to compulsive engagement in addictive behaviors; and (g) there is evidence that different interventions are appropriate for the different trait structures.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Current Drug Abuse Reviews
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study reports on a prospective test of the Acquired Preparedness Model, which posits that impulsivity influences cigarette smoking through the formation of more positive and fewer negative expectancies about smoking effects. College freshman never-smokers (n = 400; 45% male) completed a baseline interview and quarterly online follow-up assessments for 15 months after baseline. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effects of the impulsivity components of sensation seeking and negative urgency on risk of smoking initiation were mediated by expectancies for positive and negative reinforcement from smoking, respectively. Expectancies about negative consequences from smoking predicted initiation but did not mediate the effects of sensation seeking or negative urgency. Findings are consistent with the Acquired Preparedness Model and suggest that heightened impulsivity is associated with heightened expectancies for reinforcement from smoking, and thus with greater risk for smoking initiation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Psychology of Addictive Behaviors
Show more