Breaking the Bottleneck in the Protein Biomarker Pipeline
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.Clinical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 7.91). 12/2011; 58(2):321-3. DOI: 10.1373/clinchem.2011.175034
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- "or MS - based analysis Collection and preservation of samples in biobanks is crucial * Very complex proteomes need fractionation Separation of proteins in multiple dimensions Working with subproteomes potential to speed up the validation of candidate biomarkers due to their large multiplex capabilities combined with excellent limits of detection ( Witkowska et al . , 2012 ) . Development of MS - based targeted methods however still take several months for a specific type of biomarker . Furthermore , the production of stable isotope - labeled standards ( SIS ) peptides that allow absolute quantification is still costly ( Parker and Borchers , 2014a ) . An overview of all mass spectrometry - based proteomi"
ABSTRACT: Although genomics has delivered major advances in cancer prognostics, treatment and diagnostics, it still only provides a static image of the situation. To study more dynamic molecular entities, proteomics has been introduced into the cancer research field more than a decade ago. Currently, however, the impact of clinical proteomics on patient management and clinical decision-making is low and the implementations of scientific results in the clinic appear to be scarce. The search for cancer-related biomarkers with proteomics however, has major potential to improve risk assessment, early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment selection and monitoring. In this review, we provide an overview of the transition of oncoproteomics towards translational oncology. We describe which lessons are learned from currently approved protein biomarkers and previous proteomic studies, what the pitfalls and challenges are in clinical proteomics applications, and how proteomic research can be successfully translated into medical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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- "Biomarker verification is the bottleneck of the biomarker pipeline  . It is at this stage that hundreds of candidate markers need to be screened against hundreds to thousands of patient cohorts for evaluation of their true clinical utility . "
ABSTRACT: Accurate and rapid protein quantitation is essential for screening biomarkers for disease stratification and monitoring, and to validate the hundreds of putative markers in human biofluids, including blood plasma. An analytical method that utilizes stable isotope-labeled standard (SIS) peptides and selected/multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SRM/MRM-MS) has emerged as a promising technique for determining protein concentrations. This targeted approach has analytical merit, but its true potential (in terms of sensitivity and multiplexing) has yet to be realized. Described herein is a method that extends the multiplexing ability of the MRM method to enable the quantitation 142 high-to-moderate abundance proteins (from 31 mg/mL to 44 ng/mL) in undepleted and non-enriched human plasma in a single run. The proteins have been reported to be associated to a wide variety of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), from cardiovascular disease (CVD) to diabetes. The concentrations of these proteins in human plasma are inferred from interference-free peptides functioning as molecular surrogates (2 peptides per protein, on average). A revised data analysis strategy, involving the linear regression equation of normal control plasma, has been instituted to enable the facile application to patient samples, as demonstrated in separate nutrigenomics and CVD studies. The exceptional robustness of the LC/MS platform and the quantitative method, as well as its high throughput, makes the assay suitable for application to patient samples for the verification of a condensed or complete protein panel. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge.
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ABSTRACT: Perhaps paradoxically, we argue that the biological sciences are "data-limited". In contrast to the glut of DNA sequencing data available, high-throughput protein analysis is expensive and largely inaccessible. Hence, we posit that access to robust protein-level data is inadequate. Here, we use the framework of the formal engineering design process to both identify and understand the problems facing measurement science in the 21st century. In particular, discussion centers on the notable challenge of realizing protein analyses that are as effective (and transformative) as genomics tools. This Perspective looks through the lens of a case study on protein biomarker validation and verification, to highlight the importance of iterative design in realizing significant advances over currently available measurement capabilities in the candidate or targeted proteomics space. The Perspective follows a podium presentation given by the author at The 16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (μTAS 2012), specifically focusing on novel targeted proteomic measurement tools based in microfluidic design. The role of unmet needs identification, iteration in concept generation and development, and the existing gap in rapid prototyping tools for separations are all discussed.