Article

Antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli from clinical sources in northeast Ethiopia

Department of Biology, Science College, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
African health sciences (Impact Factor: 0.72). 08/2011; 11 Suppl 1(suppl 1):S40-5. DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v11i3.70069
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Escherichia coli is the leading cause of urinary tract, ear, wound and other infections in humans. Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli is a growing concern worldwide.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli from clinical samples.
A retrospective review of culture results of urine, ear discharge, pus swab from wounds, and eye discharge was done. A total of 3,149 samples were analyzed for isolation and identification of bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
E. coli was isolated from 446 (14.2%) samples. The highest isolation rate was obtained from urine samples 203 (45.5%). High resistance rates to erythromycin (89.4%), amoxicillin (86.0%) and tetracycline (72.6%) were documented. However, significantly high degree of sensitivity rates to nitrofurantoin (96.4%), norflaxocin (90.6%), gentamicin (79.6%) and ciprofloxacin were recorded (p<0.001). Multiple antimicrobial resistances of 74.6% and increased resistance rates to all antimicrobials except ciprofloxacin were also recorded.
E. coli isolates showed high rates of resistance to erythromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. Nitrofurantoin, norflaxocin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin are considered appropriate for empirical treatment of E. coli in the study area. Regular monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility is recommended.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Mulugeta Kibret
  • Source
    • "Therefore, these antibiotics should not be recommended as a first line to treat UTIs. On the other hand, CIP demonstrated a high level of in vitro susceptibility, which are in line with other findings[11,15,19,24], and could be considered as drugs of preference to treat bacterial uropathogens. In conclusion, high rates of antibiotic resistance were observed among E. coli isolates for commonly prescribed antibiotics. "

    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016
  • Source
    • "The ESBL enzyme has resistance not only to broadspectrum cephalosporins, including oxymino-β-lactam antibiotics but also to other commonly used antibiotics including aminoglycosides and quinolones [21] [22] . A number of studies have demonstrated the decreased susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae to cephalosporins and other drugs [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To study the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among 663 clinical isolates obtained from various parts of India and to study the occurrence of different variants of ESBLs among these isolates. Methods: Phenotypic characterization and susceptibility studies were performed according to the methods described in Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The occurrence of ESBL variants was analyzed with PCR using the previously reported primers. Results: Among the six hundred sixty three isolates, the identified isolates were Acinetobacter baumannii (72), Escherichia coli (218), Klebsiella pneumoniae (30), Klebsiella oxytoca (63), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (264) and Staphylococcus aureus (16). PCR results revealed that approximately 89.0% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were positive for ESBL followed by Escherichia coli (85.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (76.6%), Klebsiella oxytoca (73.0%), Acinetobacter baumannii (72.2%) and Staphylococcus aureus (31.2%). The overall prevalence of ESBL was 82.5%. The presence of TEM type ESBLs were the predominant (in 186 isolates), followed by SHV (138), OXA (92), CTX-M (65), AmpC (33), KPC (28) and blaZ (5). Of the drugs involved in the study, CSE1034 was found to be the most efficacious against all of ESBL positive clinical isolates showing susceptibility approximately 95.7% with minimal inhibitory concentration values between 0.125 and 8.000 μg/mL for all strains tested. The susceptibilities of penems (meropenem and imipenem and cilastatin) ranged between 83% and 93% for all the isolates. The susceptibilities of other drugs like piperacillin and tazobactam, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, cefoperazone and sulbactam were <45% for all the isolates. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicated that majority of the isolates was susceptible to CSE1034 and it could be a potent antibacterial agent for the treatment of severe bacterial infections caused by such organisms.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
  • Source
    • "Elevated resistance among gastrointestinal pathogens (45) as well as increased and multiple resistance rates to Erythromycin (89.4%), Amoxicillin (86.0%) and Tetracycline (72.6%) have been documented in isolates from urine, ear discharge, pus swab from wounds, and eye discharge (46). Isolates from the cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) as well as urinary pathogens have demonstrated multidrug resistance (47, 48). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The first arrival of a sizable shipment of penicillin at the North African Theatre of Operations for USA military use in 1943 was a landmark that turned a new chapter of antibiotic use in Africa. Over the past decade the expansion of resources and the technological advances have meant that much larger quantities of drugs are available in developing countries than ever before. As a result, many more individuals are receiving necessary treatment or therapy than just ten years ago. This very welcome event is accompanied by the terrible irony that increases in drug availability and use can promote drug resistance and render the same life-saving drugs ineffective. The study focused on bacterial pathogens. One hundred and three relevant literatures were identified from the PubMed online database. The coverage included research articles concerning antimicrobial resistance involving subjects of an African country. Resistant bacteria are on a war path and evidently have acquired an edge over us. Our actions are evidently fuelling the resistance. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in humans and livestock, wrong and substandard prescriptions by unqualified 'medical personnel' together with poor diagnosis or lack of it are all adding fuel to the already fired train of resistant microbes. To win the war and turn tables as we did with the discovery of penicillin and other antimicrobials in the 1940s, then we must all act now. Antimicrobial stewardship programs-Education, training of laboratory personnel and investment in laboratory infrastructure development are desirable in these situations.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Ethiopian journal of health sciences
Show more