Article

Comparative analysis of portal cell infiltrates in antimitochondrial autoantibody-positive versus antimitochondrial autoantibody-negative primary biliary cirrhosis

First Hospital, University of Jilin, Changchun, China.
Hepatology (Impact Factor: 11.06). 05/2012; 55(5):1495-506. DOI: 10.1002/hep.25511
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Substantial evidence supports dysregulated B-cell immune responses in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), including the presence of serum antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs). However, recent reports from murine models of PBC suggest that B cells may also provide regulatory function, and indeed the absence of B cells in such models leads to exacerbation of disease. The vast majority of patients with PBC have readily detectable AMAs, but a minority (<5%) are AMA negative (AMA(-)), even with recombinant diagnostic technology. This issue prompted us to examine the nature of B-cell infiltrates surrounding the portal areas in AMA-positive (AMA(+)) and AMA(-) patients, because they display indistinguishable clinical features. Of importance was the finding that the degree of bile duct damage around the portal areas was significantly milder in AMA(+) PBC than those observed in AMA(-) PBC patients. The portal areas from AMA(-) patients had a significant increase of cluster of differentiation (CD)5(+) cells infiltrating the ductal regions, and the levels of B-cell infiltrates were worse in the early phase of bile duct damage. The frequency of positive portal areas and the magnitude of CD5(+) and CD20(+) cellular infiltrates within areas of ductal invasion is associated with the first evidence of damage of biliary duct epithelia, but becomes reduced in the ductopenia stage, with the exception of CD5(+) cells, which remain sustained and predominate over CD20(+) cells. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a putative role of B-cell autoimmunity in regulating the portal destruction characteristic of PBC.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Ross Coppel
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Substantial advancements in the field of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) research have broadened our understanding of this enigmatic disease. Genome-wide studies have identified several new candidate genes involved in the immunoregulatory process, particularly those responsible for antigen presentation and lymphocyte signaling. Examples include the HLA class-II region and genes implicated in IL12-JAK/STAT signaling, and the NF-κB and TNF signaling pathways. Environmental triggers appear to disrupt the pre-existing, unstable immune tolerance in genetically susceptible individuals, and molecular mimics of the PBC-specific autoantigen (PDC) may be derived from microbes or xenobiotic compounds, which modify native proteins, making them immunogenic. Although the vast majority of patients with PBC are AMA-positive, a variety of disease-specific antinuclear antibodies have been recognized in conferring a worse clinical outcome. There has also been a revived interest in the role of antibody-secreting B cells in murine models suggesting that depletion of these cells paradoxically exacerbates cholangiopathy. Biliary specificity in PBC is most likely driven by the uniqueness of cholangiocyte apoptosis in which the PDC-E2 autoantigen undergoes differential glutathiolation. Cholangiocytes also possess the ability to phagocytose neighboring apoptotic cells, present intact immunoreactive antigen, and undergo attack from autoantibodies, the innate immune system, and autoreactive lymphocytes. Cellular senescence and a lack of functioning T-regulatory cells are proposed mechanisms by which this multi-lineage process is thought to be enhanced. This review summarizes these key advances as the true complexities of the disease process begin to be unraveled.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Hepatology International
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a progressive autoimmune liver disease of unknown etiology that affects almost exclusively women. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is currently the only approved drug by Food and Drug Administration for patients with PBC. Although the precise pathogenesis of PBC remains unclear, it has been postulated that many cell populations, including B cells, are involved in the ongoing inflammatory process, which implicates, not surprisingly, a potential therapeutic target of depleting B cell to treat this disorder. Rituximab is a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that has been approved for the treatment of lymphoma and some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Whether it is effective in the treatment of PBC has not been evaluated. Recently, Tsuda et al([1]) demonstrated that B cell depletion with rituximab significantly reduced the number of anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA)-producing B cells, AMA titers, the plasma levels of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG) as well as serum alkaline phosphatase, and it was well tolerated by all the treated patients with no serious adverse events. This observation provides a novel treatment option for the patients with PBC who have incomplete response to UDCA.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by the presence of serum autoantibodies and chronic nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis. The pathogenesis of PBC involves environmental factors, genetic predisposition and loss of immune tolerance. In recent years, it has become univocally accepted that an inappropriately activated immune response is one of the most important factors in PBC. In this study, the role of autoimmunity in PBC is summarized and a feasible research orientation is recommended.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
Show more