Inhibitory Activity of alpha-Amylase and alpha-Glucosidase by Plant Extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil. Planta Medica
(Impact Factor: 2.15).
12/2011; 78(4):393-9. DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1280404
Diabetes mellitus is the most common disease in the world. One therapeutic approach for treating diabetes is inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities to reduce postprandial blood glucose levels. In vitro tests showed that several plant extracts from Brazilian cerrado species can inhibit the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The extracts of Eugenia dysenterica, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Pouteria caimito, Pouteria ramiflora, and Pouteria torta showed strong α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Eugenia dysenterica, P. caimito, P. ramiflora, and P. torta aqueous extracts exerted the highest activity against α-amylase (IC₅₀) values of 14.93, 13.6, 7.08, and 5.67 µg/mL, respectively) and α-glucosidase (IC₅₀ values of 0.46, 2.58, 0.35, and 0.22 µg/mL, respectively). Stryphnodendron adstringens ethanol extract also exhibited inhibitory activity against both enzymes (IC₅₀) 1.86 µg/mL against α-amylase and 0.61 µg/mL against α-glucosidase). The results suggest that the activity of these cerrado plants on α-amylase and α-glucosidase represents a potential tool for development of new strategies for treatment of diabetes.
Available from: yan-xu Chang
- "It is well known that dietary fat is absorbed from the intestine after it has been subjected to the action of lipase (Kimura et al., 2008). Therefore, antioxidant substances and inhibitors of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, aldose reductase and lipase may be therapeutic for diabetes mellitus and its complications (James et al., 2007; Souza et al., 2012; Liu et al., 2013; Kawanishi et al., 2003; de la Fuente et al., 2003; de la Garza et al., 2011). "
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ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance:
Jinqi Jiangtang Tablet is a traditional Chinese anti-diabetic formula containing three ingredients: Coptis chinensis Franch. (dried rhizome of C. chinensis Franch., Coptis deltoidea C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao and Coptis teeta Wall.), Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge. (dried root of A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge. ) Hsiao and A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. ) and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (dried alabastrum or with nascent flowers of L. japonica Thunb. ). Free radicals, α-glucosidase, α-amylase, aldose reductase and lipase are different targets related with diabetes. However, there are no chromatographic methods employed in screening the anti-diabetic compounds from natural products basing on these targets simultaneously. The present study was aimed at the establishment of a multi-targets integrated fingerprinting to clarify the possible mechanism of the action of Traditional Chinese Medicines which simultaneously contained multiple chemical characteristics and effects of constitutions.
Materials and methods:
The multi-targets integrated fingerprinting was developed and validated to screen anti-diabetic compounds from natural products by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, fraction collector and microplate reader. Ultra performance liquid chromatography was employed to separate the components in Jinqi Jiangtang Tablet, which were identified by quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to acquire their structural information and collected by the fraction collector. Finally the active fractions were tested for scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, aldose reductase, and lipase activities in vitro by microplate reader.
Our tests revealed that the Jinqi Jiangtang Tablet showed inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase, α-amylase, aldose reductase and lipase with IC50 values of 0.80 ± 0.02 mg/mL, 1.28 ± 0.13 mg/mL, 0.80 ± 0.02 mg/mL, 1.90 ± 0.18 mg/mL respectively and the scavenging activity with IC50 value of 1.71 ± 0.178 mg/mL. The bioactive fractions were identified to be alkaloids, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The phenolic acids possessed antioxidant activities, namely the scavenging effect on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl rull;). The alkaloids exhibited inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase, aldose reductase, α-amylase, and lipase. The flavonoids also showed mild inhibition on α-glucosidase, aldose reductase, α-amylase and lipase.
The results demonstrate that Jinqi Jiangtang Tablet can scavenge free radicals and inhibit α-glucosidase, aldose reductase, α-amylase and lipase, which may be the possible mechanism of action of Jinqi Jiangtang Tablet for the treatment of diabetes and associated complications. Compared with conventional chromatographic separation and activity assays, the multi-targets integrated fingerprinting, which simultaneously contains the chemical characteristics and multiple effects of constitutions could comprehensively and properly reveal the activity of Jinqi Jiangtang Tablet. The results also show that the multi-targets integrated fingerprinting is a novel and powerful tool for screening and identifying active ingredients from Traditional Chinese Medicines.
Available from: Renê O. Couto
- "In this context, optimization statistical tools such as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has being successfully applied in understanding the relationship between spray drying parameters and powder properties (Vasconcelos et al., 2005; Marquele et al., 2006; Souza et al., 2007; Jangam & Thorat, 2010; Toneli et al., 2010; Oliveira et al., 2011; Couto et al., 2011; Couto et al., 2012). Eugenia dysenterica DC., Myrtaceae, commonly known as cagaita, was chosen for this research due to its importance in Brazilian folk medicine, as well as its valuable therapeutic potential described in the literature (Costa et al., 2000; Couto et al, 2009; Lima et al., 2010; De Souza et al., 2011; Lima et al., 2011; Vieira et al., 2012). Despite E. dysenterica's medicinal importance, there is a lack of information documenting its behavior during standardization and processing. "
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ABSTRACT: A 2 3 full factorial design was used to assess the impact of spraying air fl ow rate (30-50 L/min), drying air inlet temperature (90-150 ºC) and extract feed rate (4-6 g/min) on the quality of Eugenia dysenterica DC., Myrtaceae, spray-dried extracts. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to analyze the signifi cance of the effects of process factors on product quality and to obtain fi tted equations to predict dry powder properties. Powder yields were satisfactory, ranging from 34.64 to 63.92%. The dried products showed moisture contents and water activities below 5% and 0.5, respectively. The recuperation ratios of total polyphenols, tannins and fl avonoids ranged from 88.66 to 99.07%, 70.38 to 81.87% and 74.51 to 98.68%, respectively. Additionally, in some conditions the parameters related to dry product's fl owability and compressibility varied over a range acceptable for pharmaceutical purposes. RSM proved that studied factors signifi cantly affected most of the quality indicators at different levels. The spray drying technology is an attractive and promising alternative for the development of intermediate phytopharmaceutical products of E. dysenterica.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease involving persistent hyperglycemia, which causes an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes and results in damage to various tissues, including the brain. Many societies have traditionally employed medicinal plants to control the hyperglycemia. Pouteria ramiflora, a species occurring in the savanna biome of the Cerrado (Brazil) has been studied because of its possible ability to inhibit carbohydrate digestion. Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes treated with an alcoholic extract of Pouteria ramiflora show an improved glycemic level, increased glutathione peroxidase activity, decreased superoxide dismutase activity, and reduced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status. The extract also restored myosin-Va expression and the nuclear diameters of pyramidal neurons of the CA3 subregion and that of the polymorphic cells of the hilus. We conclude that Pouteria ramiflora extract exerts a neuroprotective effect against oxidative damage and myosin-Va expression and is able to prevent hippocampal neuronal loss in the CA3 and hilus subfields of diabetic rats. However, future studies are needed to understand the mechanism of action of Pouteria ramiflora extract in acute and chronic diabetes.
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