Article

Theranostic nanoplatforms for simultaneous cancer imaging and therapy: Current approaches and future perspectives

Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Nanoscale (Impact Factor: 7.39). 12/2011; 4(2):330-42. DOI: 10.1039/c1nr11277e
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Theranostics is a concept which refers to the integration of imaging and therapy. As an evolving new field, it is related to but different from traditional imaging and therapeutics. It embraces multiple techniques to arrive at a comprehensive diagnostic, in vivo molecular images and an individualized treatment regimen. More recently, there is a trend of tangling these efforts with emerging materials and nanotechnologies, in an attempt to develop novel platforms and methodologies to tackle practical issues in clinics. In this article, topics of rationally designed nanoparticles for the simultaneous imaging and therapy of cancer will be discussed. Several exemplary nanoparticle platforms such as polymeric nanoparticles, gold nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles and silica nanoparticles will be elaborated on and future challenges of nanoparticle-based systems will be discussed.

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Available from: Ki Young Choi
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    • "Over the last decade, several attempts have been made to synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles suitable for various biomedical applications due to their magnetic, hyperthermic and MRI contrast properties. Delivery of the dual properties of diagnosis and therapy in a single unit is ideal for optimum use of these particles for individualized treatment, and this mode of treatment, known as theranostics, has aimed to revolutionize interventional medical care in this decade [1] [2] [3]. Over the last few years, sufficient efforts have been reported for synthesis of stable, biocompatible and highly dispersed colloidal nanoparticles, and a number of interesting findings of their unique applications in vivo have been reported. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ferrofluid-based manganese (Mn(2+)) substituted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized by surface coating with trisodium citrate (MnIOTCs) were synthesized for enhanced hyperthermic activity and use as negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast media intended for applications in theranostics. The synthesized MnIOTC materials were characterized based on their physicochemical and biological features. The crystal size and the particle size at the nano level were studied using XRD and TEM. The presence of citrate molecules on the crystal surface of the iron oxide was established by FTIR, TGA, DLS and zeta potential measurements. The superparamagnetic property of MnIOTCs was measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Superparamagnetic iron oxide substituted with Mn(2+) with a 3:1 molar concentration of Mn(2+) to Fe(2+) and surface modified with trisodium citrate (MnIO75TC) that exhibited a high T2 relaxivity of 184.6mM(-1)s(-1) and showed excellent signal intensity variation in vitro. Hyperthermia via application of an alternating magnetic field to MnIO75TC in a HeLa cell population induced apoptosis, which was further confirmed by FACS and cLSM observations. The morphological features of the cells were highly disrupted after the hyperthermia experiment, as evidenced from E-SEM images. Biocompatibility evaluation was performed using an alamar blue assay and hemolysis studies, and the results indicated good cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility for the synthesized particles. In the current study, the potential of MnIO75TC as a negative MRI contrast agent and a hyperthermia agent was demonstrated to confirm its utility in the burgeoning field of theranostics.
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    ABSTRACT: Multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) have found important applications in diagnosis, chemotherapy, and image-guided surgery of tumors. In this work, we have developed polymeric theranostic NPs (PTNPs) containing anticancer drug docetaxel (DTX), a fluorescent dye, and magnetic manganese oxide (MnO) NPs for dual modal imaging and chemotherapy. PTNPs ~150nm in diameter were synthesized by co-loading hydrophobic DTX and MnO NPs ~5nm in diameter, into the matrix of a fluorescent dye-labeled amphiphilic polymer. The PTNPs enabled high loading efficiency and sustained in vitro release of DTX. Energy-dependent cellular uptake and extended cytoplasmic retention of the PTNPs in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were observed by fluorescence microscopy examination. DTX-loaded PTNPs exhibited higher cytotoxicity than free DTX with 3 to 4.4-fold decrease in drug dose required for 50% cell growth inhibition. The hydrophilic backbone of the amphiphilic polymer improved the fluidity of PTNPs which enhanced the longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of loaded MnO NPs by 2.7-fold with r1=2.4mM(-1)s(-1). Whole body fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed significant accumulation and prolonged retention of PTNPs in orthotopic MDA-MB-231 breast tumors. These results suggest that the new amphiphilic polymer-based PTNP system able to simultaneously deliver a poorly soluble anticancer drug, enhance MRI contrast, and stain tumor tissue by fluorescence is a good candidate for cancer theranostic applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Controlled Release
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    • "The development of functionalized iron oxide NPs is of great interest due their wide range of applications in the biomedical field. The composition, size, and morphology of the NP inorganic core are now modulated to combine properties in therapy (magnetic hyperthermia) and diag­ nosis (MRI) and to develop theranostic agents [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]. However, regarding biomedical applications, these NPs should always be functionalized with organic molecules to ensure at first their biocompatibility and biodistribu­ tion. "
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