Propositional Density and Apolipoprotein E Genotype among Persons at Risk for Familial Alzheimer's Disease

SDSU/UCSD Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, San Diego, Calif., USA. MedinaL @
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.55). 08/2011; 32(3):188-92. DOI: 10.1159/000333023
Source: PubMed


A relationship between decreased propositional density (p-density) in young adulthood and future risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been postulated, but multiple interpretations of the nature of this relationship are possible. This study explored the relationship between familial AD (FAD) mutation status, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, and p-density.
Thirty-five non-demented persons at risk for FAD mutations were recruited. Subjects wrote brief biographical essays from which p-density, the ratio of the number of unique ideas to the number of words in the text, was calculated. mixed-effects regression models were used to examine the relationship of p-density and fad mutation status and apoe genotype.
FAD mutation status was not significantly associated with p-density. However, results from both models indicated that the presence of the APOE ε4 allele was significantly associated with p-density (p < 0.0001), with APOE ε4 carriers having lower p-density than non-carriers.
Our results are consistent with an influence of APOE status on p-density in young adulthood that is independent of the AD risk per se and suggest the previous finding of increased risk for the development of AD in persons with decreased p-density may be related to APOE genotype.

11 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to provide characterization of Mexican Americans who meet criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). For the study, 1,069 participants ages 40 and above who self-identified as either non-Hispanic white (n = 633) or Mexican American (n = 436) were recruited using a community-based participatory research approach. Global cognition was assessed via the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), dementia severity by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, and depression via the Geriatric Depression Scale 30-item version. Age, gender, education, ApoE ε4 allele frequency, and diabetic diagnoses were also analyzed. The findings showed that Mexican Americans (normal controls, MCI, and AD) were younger, less highly educated, performed more poorly on the MMSE, endorsed more symptoms of depression, were more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes, and possessed the ApoE ε4 allele less frequently. Age was the only significant risk factor for cognitive dysfunction (AD/MCI) among Mexican Americans (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.03-1.09). Age (B = 0.07, std = 0.02, p < 0.001) and ApoE ε4 presence (B = 0.9, std = 0.4, p = 0.02) were significantly related to increased disease severity. Given the rapidly growing and aging Mexican American population, there is a substantial need for research into cognitive aging, MCI, and AD among this ethnic group. The current findings hold important implications for both clinic and research settings and point to additional research needs.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In mammals, the central extended amygdala shows a highly complex organization, and is essential for animal survival due to its implication in fear responses. However, many aspects of its evolution are still unknown, and this structure is especially poorly understood in birds. The aim of this study was to define the central extended amygdala in chicken, by means of a battery of region-specific transcription factors (Pax6, Islet1, Nkx2.1) and phenotypic markers that characterize these different subdivisions in mammals. Our results allowed the identification of at least six distinct subdivisions in the lateral part of the avian central extended amygdala: (1) capsular central subdivision; (2) a group of intercalated-like cell patches; (3) oval central nucleus; (4) peri-intrapeduncular (peri-INP) island field; (5) perioval zone; and (6) a rostral part of the subpallial extended amygdala. In addition, we identified three subdivisions of the laterodorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTLd) belonging to the medial region of the chicken central extended amygdala complex. Based on their genetic profile, cellular composition and apparent embryonic origin of the cells, we discuss the similarity of these different subdivisions of chicken with different parts of the mouse central amygdala and surrounding cell masses, including the intercalated amygdalar masses and the sublenticular part of the central extended amygdala. Most of the subdivisions include various subpopulations of cells that apparently originate in the dorsal striatal, ventral striatal, pallidal, and preoptic embryonic domains, reaching their final location by either radial or tangential migrations. Similarly to mammals, the central amygdala and BSTLd of chicken project to the hypothalamus, and include different neurons expressing proenkephalin, corticotropin-releasing factor, somatostatin or tyrosine hydroxylase, which may be involved in the control of different aspects of fear/anxiety-related behavior.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hypothalamus has been a central topic in neuroanatomy because of its important physiological functions, but its mature organization remains elusive. Deciphering its embryonic and adult organization is crucial in an evolutionary approach of the organization of the vertebrate forebrain. Here we studied the molecular organization of the hypothalamus and neighboring telencephalic domains in a cartilaginous fish, the catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula, focusing on ScFoxg1a, ScShh, ScNkx2.1, ScDlx2/5, ScOtp and ScTbr1 expression profiles and on the identification α-acetylated-tubulin-immunoreactive (ir), TH-ir, 5-HT-ir and GFAP-ir structures by means of immunohistochemistry. Analysis of the results within the updated prosomeric model framework support the existence of alar and basal histogenetic compartments in the hypothalamus similar to those described in the mouse, suggesting the ancestrality of these subdivisions in jawed vertebrates. These data provide new insights into hypothalamic organization in cartilaginous fishes and highlight the generality of key features of the prosomeric model in jawed vertebrates.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Frontiers in Neuroanatomy