Impact of Meat Consumption, Preparation, and Mutagens on Aggressive Prostate Cancer

Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 11/2011; 6(11):e27711. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027711
Source: PubMed


The association between meat consumption and prostate cancer remains unclear, perhaps reflecting heterogeneity in the types of tumors studied and the method of meat preparation--which can impact the production of carcinogens.
We address both issues in this case-control study focused on aggressive prostate cancer (470 cases and 512 controls), where men reported not only their meat intake but also their meat preparation and doneness level on a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Associations between overall and grilled meat consumption, doneness level, ensuing carcinogens and aggressive prostate cancer were assessed using multivariate logistic regression.
Higher consumption of any ground beef or processed meats were positively associated with aggressive prostate cancer, with ground beef showing the strongest association (OR = 2.30, 95% CI:1.39-3.81; P-trend = 0.002). This association primarily reflected intake of grilled or barbequed meat, with more well-done meat conferring a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Comparing high and low consumptions of well/very well cooked ground beef to no consumption gave OR's of 2.04 (95% CI:1.41-2.96) and 1.51 (95% CI:1.06-2.14), respectively. In contrast, consumption of rare/medium cooked ground beef was not associated with aggressive prostate cancer. Looking at meat mutagens produced by cooking at high temperatures, we detected an increased risk with 2-amino-3,8-Dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]Quinolaxine (MelQx) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo(4,5-f)qunioxaline (DiMelQx), when comparing the highest to lowest quartiles of intake: OR = 1.69 (95% CI:1.08-2.64;P-trend = 0.02) and OR = 1.53 (95% CI:1.00-2.35; P-trend = 0.005), respectively.
Higher intake of well-done grilled or barbequed red meat and ensuing carcinogens could increase the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.

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Available from: Jill Hardin, Sep 11, 2014
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    • "However, the results of two meta-analyses of the relation between dairy product intake and PC provided conflicting conclusions: one showed a significantly positive association (Gao et al., 2005) and the other (supported by the National Dairy Council) showed an overall null association (Huncharek et al., 2008). High consumption of meat has been also associated with PC risk (John et al., 2011; Punnen et al., 2011). The amount and type of fats consumed are also clearly related to PC risk (Patel, 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the association between the socio-demographic, lifestyle factors, and dietary habits with the risk of prostate cancer (PC) in a case-control study of Spanish men. None of the socio-demographic, lifestyle or dietetic variables was found predictors of PC risk. Body mass index was associated with an increased risk for aggressive PC and fruit consumption with lower Gleason scores, thus less aggressive cancers. Nonetheless, after applying Bonferroni correction, these variables were not still associated with PC aggressiveness. More adequately, powered epidemiological studies that measure the effect of lifestyle and dietary intake in PC risk and aggressiveness are warranted to further elucidate the role of these modifiable factors on PC etiology.
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    • "A high intake dose–response relation was found for intake of very well-done meat and exposure to PhIP [12]. In another cohort study conducted in the United States, a positive association was also found between high intake of well or very well-done meat and more aggressive prostate cancer [13]. "
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    • "However, dietary and lifestyle factors may also influence prostate cancer susceptibility [3,6]. Intake of red meat [7-10], dairy products [11,12], eggs [9,13,14], green tea [15,16], calcium [17-20], lycopene [21-23], selenium [6,24], and fish oil [4,25] have all been examined in relation to prostate cancer risk with relatively inconsistent results. The inconsistency of these findings may partly be due to the use of food intake measures as surrogates for bioavailable micronutrient levels, resulting in some misclassification of nutrient/metabolite exposures [26,27]. "
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