Nutrigenomics and Personalized Diets: What Will They Mean for Food?

Foods for Health Institute, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.
Review of Food Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 6.29). 04/2011; 2(1):97-123. DOI: 10.1146/
Source: PubMed


The modern food system feeds six billion people with remarkable diversity, safety, and nutrition. Yet, the current rise in diet-related diseases is compromising health and devaluing many aspects of modern agriculture. Steps to increase the nutritional quality of individual foods will assist in personalizing health and in guiding individuals to achieve superior health. Nutrigenomics is the scientific field of the genetic basis for varying susceptibilities to disease and the diverse responses to foods. Although some of these genetic determinants will be simple and amenable to personal genotyping as the means to predict health, in practice most will not. As a result, genotyping will not be the secret to personalizing diet and health. Human assessment technologies from imaging to proteomics and metabolomics are providing tools to both understand and accurately assess the nutritional phenotype of individuals. The business models are also emerging to bring these assessment capabilities to industrial practice, in which consumers will know more about their personal health and seek personal solutions.

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Available from: Jennifer T Smilowitz, Dec 14, 2015
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    • "In the last years, overweight is an emerging challenge for developing countries as well [2]. The growing number of obese people is approaching an epidemiological disaster and calls for the urgent development of means to normalize lipid metabolism, including successes in nutrigenomics, personalized nutrition programs, and the application of specific " fat burners " [3] [4] [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating data suggest that food supplementation with seaweeds which traditionally are an important part of food culture in South-East Asian countries might lead to essential health benefits. In this short review, we summarize findings from experimental studies on the effects of fucoxanthin (a carotenoid derived from brown seaweeds) on lipid metabolism, adiposity, and related conditions and discuss the possible underlying mechanisms. Supplementation of fucoxanthin or its derivatives consistently attenuated body and visceral fat weight gain, lipid accumulation in the liver, decreases insulin resistance, and improves the plasma lipid profile in rodents fed a high-fat diet. It should however be noted that in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice with genetically compromised insulin signaling, fucoxanthin might increase the plasma levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. The anti-obesity effects of fucoxanthin are apparently mediated by the hormones leptin and adiponectin through their common target AMK-activated protein kinase, resulting in downregulation of lipogenic enzymes and upregulation of lipolytic enzymes. Fucoxanthin also suppresses adipocyte differentiation and induces the expression of uncoupling proteins in visceral adipose tissue. The results of experimental studies suggest that consumption of fucoxanthin and its derivatives as nutritional supplements is a promising option for prevention and treatment of obesity and a wide variety of related pathologies, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Yet, clinical trials are warranted to assess a therapeutic value of fucoxanthin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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