Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects.
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... Unfortunately, the bioavailability of CBD is low when it is orally administered (6-19%); thus, the administration of 10 mg of CBD reaches the maximum concentration in plasma~3 µg/L at 2.8 h . The administration of CBD by different routes, across a wide range of doses, does not induce serious side effects or toxicity in humans or other species . Repeated administration over a month to healthy volunteers (daily doses ranging from 10 to 400 mg) did not induce any significant abnormalities in neurological, psychiatric, or clinical exams . ...
... CBD has a favorable safety profile in humans [18,20], in rats , and in dogs . A recent pharmacovigilance study concluded that CBD is a safe compound that causes only rare adverse reactions . ...
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in Cannabis sativa (Linneo, 1753). This naturally occurring secondary metabolite does not induce intoxication or exhibit the characteristic profile of drugs of abuse from cannabis like Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC) does. In contrast to ∆9-THC, our knowledge of the neuro-molecular mechanisms of CBD is limited, and its pharmacology, which appears to be complex, has not yet been fully elucidated. The study of the pharmacological effects of CBD has grown exponentially in recent years, making it necessary to generate frequently updated reports on this important metabolite. In this article, a rationalized integration of the mechanisms of action of CBD on molecular targets and pharmacological implications in animal models and human diseases, such as epilepsy, pain, neuropsychiatric disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, and inflammatory diseases, are presented. We identify around 56 different molecular targets for CBD, including enzymes and ion channels/metabotropic receptors involved in neurologic conditions. Herein, we compiled the knowledge found in the scientific literature on the multiple mechanisms of actions of CBD. The in vitro and in vivo findings are essential for fully understanding the polypharmacological nature of this natural product.
... Outside of the realm of cancer treatment, CBD was shown to be safe without inducing changes in heart rate, blood pressure, neurologic testing, or blood tests (118). Unlike other controlled substances, patients do not seem to develop a tolerance for CBD (119). Drug interactions with CBD may occur as it also affects the expression of various enzymes, thus caution should be taken in patients on medications metabolized in the liver (118). ...
... Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid from the Cannabis sativa plant. Unlike tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD is nonintoxicating, poses a low risk for abuse or dependency, and is generally well-tolerated (Bergamaschi et al., 2011;Iffland and Grotenhermen, 2017). Promising anecdotal and experimental evidence has increased consumer demand for CBD products. ...
Introduction: Cannabidiol (CBD) extract from the cannabis plant has biomedical and nutraceutical potential. Unlike tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD products produce few psychoactive effects and pose little risk for abuse. There is emerging preclinical and clinical evidence that CBD is stress modulatory and may have anti-inflammatory properties. People across the United States legally ingest CBD-rich hemp extracts to manage mental and physical health problems, including stress and inflammation. Preclinical studies have revealed potential mechanisms for these effects; however, the impact of this prior work is diminished because many studies: 1) tested synthetic CBD rather than CBD-rich hemp extracts containing terpenes and/or other cannabinoids thought to enhance therapeutic benefits; 2) administered CBD via injection into the peritoneal cavity or the brain instead of oral ingestion; and 3) failed to examine potential sex differences. To address these gaps in the literature, the following study tested the hypothesis that the voluntary oral ingestion of CBD-rich hemp extract will attenuate the impact of stressor exposure on plasma and tissue inflammatory and stress proteins in females and males.
Methods: Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats (10–15/group) were randomly assigned to be given cereal coated with either vehicle (coconut oil) or CBD-rich hemp extract (L-M0717, CBDrx/Functional Remedies, 20.0 mg/kg). After 7 days, rats were exposed to a well-established acute model of stress (100, 1.5 mA, 5-s, intermittent tail shocks, 90 min total duration) or remained in home cages as non-stressed controls.
Results: Stressor exposure induced a robust stress response, i.e., increased plasma corticosterone and blood glucose, and decreased spleen weight (a surrogate measure of sympathetic nervous system activation). Overall, stress-induced increases in inflammatory and stress proteins were lower in females than males, and oral CBD-rich hemp extract constrained these responses in adipose tissue (AT) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Consistent with previous reports, females had higher levels of stress-evoked corticosterone compared to males, which may have contributed to the constrained inflammatory response measured in females.
Discussion: Results from this study suggest that features of the acute stress response are impacted by oral ingestion of CBD-rich hemp extract in female and male rats, and the pattern of changes may be sex and tissue dependent.
... It was reported that the administration of CBD can have some side effects, including the inhibition of hepatic drug absorption, changes in vitro cell viability, and decreases in fertilization capability. Despite these potential side effects, research has indicated that controlled administration of CBD in humans and animals is generally safe . Therefore, more studies should be conducted for a better understanding of the possible side effects of CBD administration in the treatment of CRC. ...
Cannabis sativa is a multipurpose plant that has been used in medicine for centuries. Recently, considerable research has focused on the bioactive compounds of this plant, particularly cannabinoids and terpenes. Among other properties, these compounds exhibit antitumor effects in several cancer types, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Cannabinoids show positive effects in the treatment of CRC by inducing apoptosis, proliferation, metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, and autophagy. Terpenes, such as β-caryophyllene, limonene, and myrcene, have also been reported to have potential antitumor effects on CRC through the induction of apoptosis, the inhibition of cell proliferation, and angiogenesis. In addition, synergy effects between cannabinoids and terpenes are believed to be important factors in the treatment of CRC. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the potential of cannabinoids and terpenoids from C. sativa to serve as bioactive agents for the treatment of CRC while evidencing the need for further research to fully elucidate the mechanisms of action and the safety of these compounds.
... Cannabis sativa L. and cannabis-derived products in various forms have been used widely throughout the world for thousands of years for medicinal and recreational purposes (Bergamaschi et al., 2011;Rupasinghe et al., 2020). While delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis, has historically been the primary focus of much research, attention has also turned to other phytocannabinoids and terpenes. ...
Use of cannabidiol (CBD) in humans has increased considerably in recent years. While currently available studies suggest that CBD is relatively safe for human consumption, data from publicly available studies on CBD conducted according to modern testing guidelines are lacking. In the current study, the potential for toxicity following repeated oral exposure to hemp-derived CBD isolate was evaluated in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. No adverse treatment-related effects were observed following administration of CBD via oral gavage for 14 and 90 days at concentrations up to 150 and 140 mg/kg-bw/d, respectively. Microscopic liver and adrenal gland changes observed in the 90-day study were determined to be resolved after a 28-day recovery period. CBD was well tolerated at these dose levels, and the results of this study are comparable to findings reported in unpublished studies conducted with other CBD isolates. The current studies were conducted as part of a broader research program to examine the safety of CBD.
HempChoice® Hemp Oil Extract (Geocann, LLC) is an extract of the aerial parts of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) primarily comprised of 55–75% cannabidiol (CBD), 1–15% other phytocannabinoids and 1–15% terpenes. The results of multiple safety studies demonstrated that it was non-mutagenic in an Ames and mammalian cell micronucleus.test and was well tolerated in a 14-day range-finding study at dose levels up to 96.03.mg/kg BW/day. In the 90-day study, no HempChoice® Hemp Oil Extract-related significant changes were noted in weekly BW, daily BW gain, food consumption, functional observational battery or motor activity assessment. In addition, no HempChoice® Hemp Oil Extract related mortalities, abnormal clinical observations and ophthalmological changes were reported. Some HempChoice® Hemp Oil Extract-related changes were reported in the hematology and clinical chemistry parameters evaluated. These changes were not outside the normal range and were considered reversible during the 28-day recovery period. No macroscopic findings were reported, and histopathological changes related to HempChoice® Hemp Oil Extract exposure were limited to adaptive changes in the liver which were not observed in the recovery group animals. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for HempChoice® Hemp Oil Extract was determined to be 185.90 mg/kg BW/day in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.
Introduction: Diabetic neuropathies are the most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes, characterized by pain and substantial morbidity. Although many drugs have been approved for the treatment of this type of pain, including gabapentin, tramadol (TMD), and classical opioids, it is common to report short-term results or potentially severe side effects. TMD, recommended as a second-line treatment can lead to unwanted side effects. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been gaining attention recently due to its therapeutic properties, including pain management. This study aimed to characterize the pharmacological interaction between CBD and TMD over the mechanical allodynia associated with experimental diabetes using isobolographic analysis. Materials and Methods: After diabetes induction by streptozotocin (STZ), diabetic rats were systemically treated with CBD or TMD alone or in combination (doses calculated based on linear regression of effective dose 40% [ED40]) and had the mechanical threshold evaluated using the electronic Von Frey apparatus. Both experimental and theoretical additive ED40 values (Zmix and Zadd, respectively) were determined for the combination of CBD plus TMD in this model. Results: Acute treatment with CBD (3 or 10 mg/kg) or TMD (2.5, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) alone or in combination (0.38+1.65 or 1.14+4.95 mg/kg) significantly improved the mechanical allodynia in STZ-diabetic rats. Isobolographic analysis revealed that experimental ED40 of the combination (Zmix) was 1.9 mg/kg (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2-2.9) and did not differ from the theoretical additive ED40 2.0 mg/kg (95% CI=1.5-2.8; Zadd), suggesting an additive antinociceptive effect in this model. Conclusions: Using an isobolographic analysis, these results provide evidence of additive pharmacological interaction between CBD and TMD over the neuropathic pain associated with experimental diabetes induced by STZ.
Cannabis sativa L. is a flowering plant in the family Cannabaceae, and has been cultivated since ancient times for its fibres, oils, resins, dried inflorescences, and leaves. It can be used for a variety of industrial purposes. Over the years, the therapeutic and pharmacological efficacy of its phytoconstituents is shown in a variety of human diseases and health. The use and exploitation of the plant have sparked controversy; however, there are recent legalizations of its use for medical and other purposes in many countries within the corresponding legislative framework. In addition to this legalization, C. sativa is encouraging the very rapid growth of the cannabis oriented pharmaceutical industry. This chapter summarized recent developments in the science of C. sativa and its products about their industrial application, while also addressing gaps in the existing knowledge and future research directions for this high-value multi-use, and potential industrial plant with universal benefits.
Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol binds cannabinoid (CB(1) and CB(2)) receptors, which are activated by endogenous compounds (endocannabinoids) and are involved in a wide range of physiopathological processes (e.g. modulation of neurotransmitter release, regulation of pain perception, and of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and liver functions). The well-known psychotropic effects of Delta(9)-tetra hydrocannabinol, which are mediated by activation of brain CB(1) receptors, have greatly limited its clinical use. However, the plant Cannabis contains many cannabinoids with weak or no psychoactivity that, therapeutically, might be more promising than Delta(9)-tetra hydrocannabinol. Here, we provide an overview of the recent pharmacological advances, novel mechanisms of action, and potential therapeutic applications of such non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoids. Special emphasis is given to cannabidiol, the possible applications of which have recently emerged in inflammation, diabetes, cancer, affective and neurodegenerative diseases, and to Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin, a novel CB(1) antagonist which exerts potentially useful actions in the treatment of epilepsy and obesity.
Cannabidiol and other cannabinoids were examined as neuroprotectants in rat cortical neuron cultures exposed to toxic levels of the neurotransmitter, glutamate. The psychotropic cannabinoid receptor agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol, (a non-psychoactive constituent of marijuana), both reduced NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptor mediated neurotoxicities. Neuroprotection was not affected by cannabinoid receptor antagonist, indicating a (cannabinoid) receptor-independent mechanism of action. Glutamate toxicity can be reduced by antioxidants. Using cyclic voltametry and a fenton reaction based system, it was demonstrated that Cannabidiol, THC and other cannabinoids are potent antioxidants. As evidence that cannabinoids can act as an antioxidants in neuronal cultures, cannabidiol was demonstrated to reduce hydroperoxide toxicity in neurons. In a head to head trial of the abilities of various antioxidants to prevent glutamate toxicity, cannabidiol was superior to both a-tocopherol and ascorbate in protective capacity. Recent preliminary studies in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia suggest that cannabidiol may be at least as effective in vivo as seen in these in vitro studies.
(−)-Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis with possible therapeutic use as an anti-inflammatory drug. Little is known on the possible molecular targets of this compound. We investigated whether CBD and some of its derivatives interact with vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR1), the receptor for capsaicin, or with proteins that inactivate the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide (AEA).
CBD and its enantiomer, (+)-CBD, together with seven analogues, obtained by exchanging the C-7 methyl group of CBD with a hydroxy-methyl or a carboxyl function and/or the C-5′ pentyl group with a di-methyl-heptyl (DMH) group, were tested on: (a) VR1-mediated increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations in cells over-expressing human VR1; (b) [14C]-AEA uptake by RBL-2H3 cells, which is facilitated by a selective membrane transporter; and (c) [14C]-AEA hydrolysis by rat brain membranes, which is catalysed by the fatty acid amide hydrolase.
Both CBD and (+)-CBD, but not the other analogues, stimulated VR1 with EC50=3.2 – 3.5 μM, and with a maximal effect similar in efficacy to that of capsaicin, i.e. 67 – 70% of the effect obtained with ionomycin (4 μM). CBD (10 μM) desensitized VR1 to the action of capsaicin. The effects of maximal doses of the two compounds were not additive.
(+)-5′-DMH-CBD and (+)-7-hydroxy-5′-DMH-CBD inhibited [14C]-AEA uptake (IC50=10.0 and 7.0 μM); the (−)-enantiomers were slightly less active (IC50=14.0 and 12.5 μM). CBD and (+)-CBD were also active (IC50=22.0 and 17.0 μM).
CBD (IC50=27.5 μM), (+)-CBD (IC50=63.5 μM) and (−)-7-hydroxy-CBD (IC50=34 μM), but not the other analogues (IC50>100 μM), weakly inhibited [14C]-AEA hydrolysis.
Only the (+)-isomers exhibited high affinity for CB1 and/or CB2 cannabinoid receptors.
These findings suggest that VR1 receptors, or increased levels of endogenous AEA, might mediate some of the pharmacological effects of CBD and its analogues. In view of the facile high yield synthesis, and the weak affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, (−)-5′-DMH-CBD represents a valuable candidate for further investigation as inhibitor of AEA uptake and a possible new therapeutic agent.
British Journal of Pharmacology (2001) 134, 845–852; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704327