Assessment of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in plasma of bottlenose dolphins from two southeast US estuarine areas: Relationship with age, sex and geographic locations

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health & Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412-9110, USA.
Marine Pollution Bulletin (Impact Factor: 2.99). 11/2011; 64(1):66-74. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.10.022
Source: PubMed


Plasma PFCs were measured in 157 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) sampled from two US southeast Atlantic sites (Charleston (CHS), SC and Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL) during 2003-2005. ∑PFCs, perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (∑PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (∑PFSAs) and individual compounds were significantly higher in CHS dolphins for all age/sex categories compared to IRL dolphins. Highest ∑PFCs concentrations occurred in CHS juvenile dolphins (2340 ng/g w.w.); significantly higher than found in adults (1570 ng/g w.w. males; 1330 ng/g w.w. females). ∑PFCAs were much greater in CHS dolphins (≈ 21%) compared to IRL dolphins (≈ 7%); ∑PFSAs were 79% in CHS dolphins versus 93% in IRL dolphins. PFOS, the dominant compound, averaged 72% and 84%, respectively, in CHS and IRL dolphins. Decreasing PFC levels occurred with age on the bioaccumulation of PFCs in both sites. These observations suggest PFC accumulation in these two dolphin populations are influenced by site-specific exposures with significantly higher levels in CHS dolphins.

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Available from: Magali Houde
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    • "They are relatively long lived with high trophic positions and large blubber stores, making them a good monitoring species for the coastal aquatic environment (Bossart, 2011). Bottlenose dolphins from Charleston, SC have some of the highest documented serum levels of PFOS in wildlife, ranging from 317 to 6257 ng g –1 ww (wet weight) (Houde et al., 2005; Fair et al., 2012). Additionally, PFOS has been shown to biomagnify in these dolphins exhibiting biomagnification factors ranging from 1.2 to 4.6 (depending on prey species) and trophic magnification factors of 1.8 to 4.9 based on whole body burden or plasma concentrations, respectively (Houde et al., 2006b). "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies in our lab have shown that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) modulates immune function in mice and correlates with many immune parameters in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In this study, bottlenose dolphin peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and adult female B6C3F1 mouse splenocytes were exposed to environmentally relevant PFOS concentrations (0-5 µg ml(-1) ) in vitro; and natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation (T and B cell) were assessed using the parallelogram approach for risk assessment. The objectives were: to corroborate results from the correlative studies in bottlenose dolphins with in vitro PFOS exposures; to evaluate the sensitivity of the mouse model as compared with bottlenose dolphins; and to assess risk using the parallelogram approach. In mouse cells, NK cell activity was decreased at in vitro doses of 0.01, 0.5, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 µg PFOS ml(-1) and increased at 5 µg ml(-1) . Additionally, B cell proliferation was not altered, but T cell proliferation was decreased at all in vitro PFOS exposures. In dolphin cells, NK cell activity and T cell proliferation were not altered by in vitro PFOS exposure, but B cell proliferation exhibited a positive association in relation to PFOS dose. Overall, the data indicates that: the in vitro exposures of bottlenose dolphin PBLs exhibited results similar to reported correlative fields studies; that mice were generally more sensitive (for these selected endpoints) than were dolphins; and that the parallelogram approach could be used two-thirds of the time to predict the effects in bottlenose dolphins. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Applied Toxicology
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    • "PFAS are ubiquitous in river water, oceans, sediment, soil, and tissues of wildlife and humans (Ahrens et al., 2010a; Higgins et al., 2005;Wang et al., 2013; Giesy and Kannan, 2001; Bao et al., 2010a; Kannan et al., 2001, 2002a,b). They are potentially harmful to fresh water and marine mammals (Ishibashi et al., 2008) and have potential adverse effects in wildlife species (Hoff et al., 2005; Fair et al., 2012; Beach et al., 2005; Newsted et al., 2005, 2008; Giesy et al., 2009). Sediment is an important sink and reservoir of persistent organic pollutants and has a large impact on their distribution, transportation, and fate in the aquatic environment (Ahrens et al., 2009; Yang et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the concentrations and distribution of Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in sediments of 12 rivers from South Bohai coastal watersheds. The highest concentrations of ΣPFAS (31.920ngg(-)(1)dw) and PFOA (29.021ngg(-)(1)dw) were found in sediments from the Xiaoqing River, which was indicative of local point sources in this region. As for other rivers, concentrations of ΣPFAS ranged from 0.218 to 1.583ngg(-)(1)dw were found in the coastal sediments and from 0.167 to 1.953ngg(-)(1)dw in the riverine sediments. Predominant PFAS from coastal and riverine areas were PFOA and PFBS, with percentages of 30% and 35%, respectively. Partitioning analysis showed the concentrations of PFNA, PFDA and PFHxS were significantly correlated with organic carbon. The results of a preliminary environmental hazard assessment showed that PFOS posed the highest hazard in the Mi River, while PFOA posed a relative higher hazard in the Xiaoqing River.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Marine Pollution Bulletin
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    • "One parameter that could be affecting dolphin health is the high concentrations of chemical contaminants such as dichlorodipenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dipenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes found in the blubber, the triacylglycerol-rich tissue in dolphins (Augier et al., 1993; Cockcroft et al., 1989; Fair et al., 2007, 2010; Hansen and Wells, 1996; Hansen et al., 2004; Kuehl and Haebler, 1995; Leonzio et al., 1992; Pulster et al., 2005; Tanabe et al., 1984, 1988). In addition , perfluororalkyl compounds have been detected in the blood (Fair et al., 2012; Houde et al., 2005) and mercury in blood and skin (Stavros et al., 2007, 2008). Dolphins have a limited ability to metabolize persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and are often resident for long periods in specific estuaries where they can accumulate a variety of POPs (Boon et al., 1998; Shane et al., 1986; Tanabe et al., 1988). "
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    ABSTRACT: The comet assay was carried out on blood lymphocytes from a large number of wild dolphins (71 from Indian River Lagoon, FL, USA; 51 from Charleston Harbor, SC, USA) and provides a baseline study of DNA strand breaks in wild dolphin populations. There were no significant differences in the comet assay (%DNAintail) results between the different age and sex categories. Significant difference in DNA strand breaks were found between Charleston Harbor dolphins (median - 17.4%DNAintail) and Indian River Lagoon dolphins (median - 14.0%DNAintail). A strong correlation found between T-cell proliferation and DNA strand breaks in dolphin lymphocytes suggests that dolphins with a high numbers of DNA strand breaks have a decreased ability to respond to infection. Higher concentrations of genotoxic agents in Charleston Harbor compared with Indian River lagoon may have been one of the causes of higher DNA strand breaks in these dolphins.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Marine Pollution Bulletin
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