Article

A retrospective multicenter analysis of elderly Hodgkin lymphoma: Outcomes and prognostic factors in the modern era

Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, 01655, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.45). 11/2011; 119(3):692-5. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2011-09-378414
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

We investigated a recent (January 1999 to December 2009) cohort of 95 elderly Hodgkin lymphoma subjects. At diagnosis, median age was 67 years (range, 60-89 years), whereas 61% had significant comorbidity, 26% were unfit, 17% had a geriatric syndrome, and 13% had loss of activities of daily living. Overall response rate to therapy was 85%, whereas incidence of bleomycin lung toxicity was 32% (with associated mortality rate, 25%). With 66-month median follow-up, 2-year and 5-year overall survival were 73% and 58%, respectively (advanced-stage, 63% and 46%, respectively). Most International Prognostic Score factors were not prognostic on univariate analyses, whereas Cox multivariate regression identified 2 risk factors associated with inferior overall survival: (1) age more than 70 years (2.24; 95% CI, 1.16-4.33, P = .02) and (2) loss of activities of daily living (2.71; 95% CI, 1.07-6.84, P = .04). Furthermore, a novel survival model based on number of these risk factors (0, 1, or 2) showed differential 2-year OS of 83%, 70%, and 13%, respectively (P < .0001) and 5-year OS of 73%, 51%, and 0%, respectively (P < .0001).

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Available from: Chadi Nabhan, Feb 04, 2016
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    • "Bleomycin leads to frequent incidence of pulmonary toxicity in the elderly. In a recent report, the incidence of bleomycin lung toxicity was 32% with a 25% mortality.14 Intensified regimens as the BEACOPP-dose escalated regimen are not recommended for patients with advanced-stage HL over 60 years.15 "
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    ABSTRACT: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is among the neoplastic diseases that has the best long-term outcome after cytotoxic treatment. Cure rates approach 80-90%; however, 15-20% of patients will be resistant to therapy (primary refractory) or relapse after treatment. Prognostic factors should help to stratify treatment according to the risk profile and identify patients at risk for failure. Significance of prognostic factors partly depends on the efficacy of the treatments administered, since new effective therapies can variably counterbalance the adverse effects of some unfavorable clinical determinants. As a consequence, some prognostic factors thought to be important in the past may become meaningless when modern successful therapies are used. Therefore, the value of prognostic factors has to be updated periodically, and then adapted to new emerging biomarkers. Besides the prognostic role of PET imaging, tissue and circulating biomarkers, as the number of tumor-infiltrating macrophages, cytokine and chemokine levels and profiling of circulating nucleic acids (DNA and microRNAs) have shown promise.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
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    • "These figures are significantly inferior to those reported in the adult patient.3 However, HL survival for all age groups increased in the last two decades, even in the age subset over 60, where no major advances in treatment efficacy were recorded, indicating an overall improvement in patient care.1,3 "
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    ABSTRACT: Hodgkin Lymphoma HL can be cured in the large majority of younger patients, but prognosis for older patients, especially those with advanced-stage disease, has not improved substantially. The percentage of HL patients aged over 60 ranges between 15% and 35%. A minority of them is enrolled into clinical trials. HL in the elderly have some specificities: more frequent male sex, B-symptoms, advanced stage, sub diaphragmatic presentation, higher percentage of mixed cellularity, up to 50% of advanced cases associated to EBV. Very old age (>70) and comorbidities are factor of further worsening prognosis. Like in younger patients, ABVD is the most used protocol, but treatment outcome remains much inferior with more frequent, severe and sometimes specific toxicities. Few prospective studies with specific protocols are available. The main data have been published by the Italian Lymphoma Group with the VEPEMB schedule and the German Hodgkin Study Group with the PVAG regimen. Recently, the Scotland and Newcastle Lymphoma Study Group published the SHIELD program associating a prospective phase 2 trial with VEPEMB and a prospective registration of others patients. Patients over 60y with early-stage disease received three cycles plus radiotherapy and had 81% of 3-year overall survival (OS). Those with advanced-stage disease received six cycles, with 3-year OS of 66%. The role of geriatric and comorbidity assessment in the treatment's choice for HL in the elderly is a major challenge. The combination of loss of activities of daily living combined with the age stratification more or less 70y has been shown as a simple and effective survival model. Hopes come from promising new agents like brentuximab-vedotin (BV) a novel antibody-drug conjugate. The use of TEP to adapt the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy according to the metabolic response could also be way for prospective studies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
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    • "20% ) , while the 2000 – 04 survival rates remained significantly inferior compared with that seen in younger populations . Moreover , a recent retrospective analysis of older HL patients treated in the contemporary era showed continued overall modest outcomes ( Evens et al , 2012 ) . It remains unclear to what extent the poor outcomes of older HL patients are due to potential biological differences in disease ( i . "
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    ABSTRACT: There is a lack of contemporary prospective data examining the adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) and Stanford V (SV; doxorubicin, vinblastine, mechlorethamine, vincristine, bleomycin, etoposide, prednisone) regimens in older Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. Forty-four advanced-stage, older HL patients (aged ≥60 years) were treated on the randomized study, E2496. Toxicities were mostly similar between chemotherapy regimens, although 24% of older patients developed bleomycin lung toxicity (BLT), which occurred mainly with ABVD (91%). Further, the BLT-related mortality rate was 18%. The overall treatment-related mortality for older HL patients was 9% vs. 0·3% for patients aged <60 years (P < 0·001). Among older patients, there were no survival differences between ABVD and SV. According to age, outcomes were significantly inferior for older versus younger patients (5-year failure-free survival: 48% vs. 74%, respectively, P = 0·002; 5-year overall survival: 58% and 90%, respectively, P < 0·0001), although time-to-progression (TTP) was not significantly different (5-year TTP: 68% vs. 78%, respectively, P = 0·37). Furthermore, considering progression and death without progression as competing risks, the risk of progression was not different between older and younger HL patients (5 years: 30% and 23%, respectively, P = 0·30); however, the incidence of death without progression was significantly increased for older HL patients (22% vs. 9%, respectively, P < 0·0001). Altogether, the marked HL age-dependent survival differences appeared attributable primarily to non-HL events.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · British Journal of Haematology
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