A Prospective Cohort Study of Coffee Consumption and Risk of Endometrial Cancer over a 26-Year Follow-Up

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.13). 11/2011; 20(12):2487-95. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0766
Source: PubMed


Coffee has been reported to lower levels of estrogen and insulin, two hormones implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis, but prospective data on the relation between coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer are limited.
We prospectively assessed coffee consumption in relation to endometrial cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) with 67,470 female participants aged 34 to 59 in 1980. Cumulative average coffee intake was calculated with all available questionnaires to assess long-term effects. Cox regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (RR), controlling for other risk factors.
Fewer than 4 cups of coffee per day were not associated with endometrial cancer risk. However, women who consumed 4 or more cups of coffee had 25% lower risk of endometrial cancer than those who consumed less than 1 cup per day (multivariable RR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.57-0.97; P(trend) = 0.02). We found the similar association with caffeinated coffee consumption (RR for ≥4 vs. <1 cup/d = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.51-0.95). For decaffeinated coffee consumption, a suggestive inverse association was found among women who consumed 2 or more cups per day versus <1 cup/mo. Tea consumption was not associated with endometrial cancer risk.
These prospective data suggest that four or more cups of coffee per day are associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer.
Drinking of coffee, given its widespread consumption, might be an additional strategy to reduce endometrial cancer risk. However, addition of substantial sugar and cream to coffee could offset any potential benefits.

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Available from: Youjin Je, Oct 20, 2014
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    • "Two recent prospective studies showed inconsistent results concerning the association between coffee type and endometrial cancer risk. While one study [17] found a significant decrease in risk associated with only caffeinated coffee in obese women, another [18] concluded that both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee may reduce endometrial cancer risk. Overall, it is unclear whether caffeine is the compound causally associated with endometrial cancer risk reduction. "
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    ABSTRACT: Coffee and its compounds have been proposed to inhibit endometrial carcinogenesis. Studies in the Norwegian population can be especially interesting due to the high coffee consumption and increasing incidence of endometrial cancer in the country. A total of 97 926 postmenopausal Norwegian women from the population-based prospective Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study, were included in the present analysis. We evaluated the general association between total coffee consumption and endometrial cancer risk as well as the possible impact of brewing method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to estimate risks, and heterogeneity tests were performed to compare brewing methods. During an average of 10.9 years of follow-up, 462 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified. After multivariate adjustment, significant risk reduction was found among participants who drank >=8 cups/day of coffee with a hazard ratio of 0.52 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.34-0.79). However, we did not observe a significant dose- response relationship. No significant heterogeneity in risk was found when comparing filtered and boiled coffee brewing methods. A reduction in endometrial cancer risk was observed in subgroup analyses among participants who drank >=8 cups/day and had a body mass index >=25 kg/m2, and in current smokers. These data suggest that in this population with high coffee consumption, endometrial cancer risk decreases in women consuming >=8 cups/day, independent of brewing method.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · BMC Women's Health
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    • "95% CI: 0.63–0.99). Consistent with our results, four recent studies found an inverse association of coffee with EC, particularly among women with BMI ⩾30 kg m−2 (Friberg et al, 2009; Giri et al, 2011; Gunter et al, 2011; Je et al, 2011). For the first time, we extend this association specifically to Type I EC and to coffee but not other common sources of methylxanthines, which were not addressed by these prior studies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Coffee and other sources of methylxanthines and risk of Type I vs Type II endometrial cancer (EC) have not been evaluated previously. Methods: Prospective cohort of 23 356 postmenopausal women with 471 Type I and 71 Type II EC cases. Results: Type I EC was statistically significantly associated with caffeinated (relative risk (RR)=0.65 for 4+ cups per day vs ⩽1 cup per month: 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47–0.89) but not decaffeinated (RR=0.76; 95% CI: 0.50–1.15) coffee intake; there were no associations with tea, cola or chocolate, or for Type II EC. The inverse association with caffeinated coffee intake was specific to women with a body mass index 30+ kg m−2 (RR=0.56; 95% CI: 0.36–0.89). Conclusion: Coffee may protect against Type I EC in obese postmenopausal women.
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