Comorbidities Related to BMI Category in Children and Adolescents: German/Austrian/Swiss Obesity Register APV Compared to the German KiGGS Study
Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany. Hormone Research in Paediatrics
(Impact Factor: 1.57).
11/2011; 77(1):19-26. DOI: 10.1159/000334147
To assess cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents in Germany, Austria and Switzerland and to investigate the relationship to BMI category.
Data of 63,025 overweight or obese patients (APV population) were compared to normal-weight subjects from a representative study on health status of 14,298 children and adolescents in Germany (KiGGS survey). The weight status was assessed by BMI, and BMI-SDS values were cal-culated using national reference data.
In normal-weight KiGGS subjects, mean BMI was 17.3 ± 2.5 (BMI-SDS -0.1 ± 0.8). In the overweight or obese APV population, mean BMI was 30.2 ± 5.6 (BMI-SDS 2.5 ± 0.6). In normal-weight subjects blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were elevated in 6.1, 8.6, 7.0 and 3.0%, respectively, and HDL-cholesterol was reduced in 3.0%, whereas in overweight/obese subjects the percentages of abnormal values were 35.3, 13.8, 14.5, 13.6, and 10.1%, respectively.
Cardiovascular risk is increased in obese children and adolescents. There is a strong need to monitor blood pressure and serum lipids in this group of patients. Our results emphasize the importance of prevention of obesity in order to reduce cardiovascular risk.
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Available from: Catherine Tamsin Saunders Gasser
- "In our cohort study, we found that 23% of subjects had either systolic or diastolic hypertension, confirming previous studies (15 to 52%) [22–25]. The magnitudes of blood pressure z-scores were proportional to the degree of adiposity, as already documented [22, 24, 26], and the risk to present systolic HTN in the obese and extremely obese groups were increased by 2.5 and almost five fold, respectively, compared to the overweight group. HTN was not correlated to family hypertension. "
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ABSTRACT: The burden of disease from childhood obesity is considerable worldwide, as it is associated with several co-morbidities, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), orthopedic and psychosocial problems. We aimed at determining the prevalence of these complications in a population of children and adolescents with body weight excess.
This is a cohort study including 774 new patients (1.7 - 17.9 yrs, mean 11.1 ± 3.0) attending a pediatric obesity care center. We assessed personal and family medical histories, physical examination, systemic blood pressure, biochemical screening tests.
We found that the great majority of the children suffered from at least one medical complication. Orthopedic pathologies were the most frequent (54%), followed by metabolic (42%) and cardiovascular disturbances (31%). However, non-medical conditions related to well-being, such as bullying, psychological complaints, shortness of breath or abnormal sleeping patterns, were present in the vast majority of the children (79.4%). Family history of dyslipidemia tends to correlate with the child’s lipids disturbance (p = .053), and ischemic events or T2DM were correlated with cardiovascular risk factors present in the child (p = .046; p = .038, respectively).
The vast majority of obese children suffer from medical and non-medical co-morbidities which must be actively screened. A positive family history for cardiovascular diseases or T2DM should be warning signs to perform further complementary tests. Furthermore, well-being related-complaints should not be underestimated as they were extremely frequent.
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ABSTRACT: The present survey aims at determining the prevalence of extreme obesity (defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 99.5th percentile) for the first time in Austria and at investigating the relationship between weight status and mother tongue in a representative Viennese sample of 24,989 children and adolescents (2–16 years) with a percentage of approximately 46 % of migration background.
Directly measured anthropometric data on body weight and height were collected and BMI was calculated. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and extreme obesity was determined for every subgroup according to mother tongue using the German national reference criteria by Kromeyer-Hauschild et al.
In this sample, 2.1 % of all children and adolescents had to be classified as being extremely obese. More boys (2.3 %) than girls (1.9 %) suffered from extreme obesity (p = 0.048). Total 1.7 % of children and adolescents with German as their native language, 2.5 % of Turkish native speakers and 2.9 % of children and adolescents with another mother tongue were extremely obese (p ≤ 0.001). The highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was found in Turkish-native-speaking children and adolescents (p ≤ 0.001), whereas the lowest one was found in German-native-speaking children and adolescents (p ≤ 0.001).
This large study clearly shows that extreme obesity is a common disease and largely neglected. Apparently, another native language than German, as an indicator for a migration background, may be associated with a substantially higher probability for the development of extreme obesity in Vienna, Austria. Thus, effective preventive measures to overcome obesity are urgently needed.
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Data on safety, effectiveness and amelioration of metabolic comorbidities are scarce for adolescents undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).
Data on a 17 year-old female who underwent LSG due to morbid obesity and quantification of visceral adipose tissue (VAT)/hepatic fat (HF) by MRI scan are presented. In addition, a review of the literature related to LSG in adolescent obesity is provided [search terms: laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, adolescence, obesity].
Pre-existing comorbidities in our patient included insulin resistance, NASH (HF: 28%) and hyperuricemia. BMI dropped from 52.9 kg/m(2) to 40.4 and 35.0 kg/m(2) after 6 and 24 months, respectively, following LSG. VAT dropped by 49.2% and by 71.5% within 6 and 24 months, accompanied by a decrease of HF to 1.53% and to 0.85%, respectively. Improvements of metabolic parameters towards normal range, which were reached within 6 months following LSG, could be maintained for 2 years. The review of the literature revealed that 9 original papers on LSG in adolescent obesity are available to date, ranging from single case presentations to case series of 108 patients and including children and adolescents 8-18 years.
LSG is a safe and - in the short term - effective bariatric procedure for adolescent obesity (follow up 24 months). Long-term results with larger numbers of patients and involving additional features, such as quantification of VAT and HF as markers of metabolic risk and insulin resistance, are warranted to further understand the effectiveness and safety and to further explore the long-term benefits of this procedure in adolescence.
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