Localised Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in four dogs
University of Melbourne, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.Australian Veterinary Journal (Impact Factor: 1.05). 12/2011; 89(12):506-10. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.2011.00850.x
Localised infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is described in two Kelpies, a Whippet and a Koolie domiciled on the Bellarine Peninsula, Victoria, Australia. The diagnosis was confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the M. ulcerans-specific insertion sequence (IS2404) in DNA extracted from swabs of ulcerated lesions in all cases. Where available, molecular typing confirmed that three of the dogs were infected with a strain of M. ulcerans that was indistinguishable from a disease-causing strain in people and other animals in Victoria. One dog was still undergoing treatment at the time of writing, but the remaining three dogs were successfully treated with a combination of surgical debridement and medical therapy in one case, and medical therapy alone in the other two. Investigation of the home environs of three of the dogs using real-time PCR revealed low amounts of M. ulcerans DNA in various environmental samples. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection should be included in the differential diagnoses of any ulcerated skin lesions in dogs that live in or visit endemic areas of Victoria and Queensland.
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ABSTRACT: Overview of the Australian sheep industry · The first incisor eruption in Angora goats · Hepatitis E in pigs in New Caledonia · Thromboelastography in neonatal foals · Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in dogs · Harmonic scalpel for soft palate surgery in dogs · Fungal dermatitis in coastal bearded dragons · Osteosarcoma in a python.
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ABSTRACT: Background - Canine leproid granuloma (CLG) characteristically presents as single to multiple circumscribed dermal to subcutaneous nodules in haired skin. An unidentified mycobacterium is considered be the aetiological agent of this entity. Animals - Several cases of canine leproid granulomas occurred in dogs in New Zealand during 2010 and 2011. Cases appeared in clusters, affecting multiple closely related foxhounds domiciled in the same kennels. All affected hounds recovered after topical and/or systemic antimicrobial therapy. Two similar outbreaks that occurred in foxhounds near Melbourne, Australia are also reported. Methods - Cases were investigated using cytological, histological, microbiological and several molecular techniques. An environmental epidemiological study was also performed. Results - A diagnosis of CLG was established in 11 dogs. Molecular identification of the causative agent confirmed that it was a mycobacterial species with 100% sequence homology within the amplified regions of the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) with that found in association with similar infections from the USA, Brazil and Australia. Conclusion and clinical importance - This report details the first occurrence of multiple cases of CLG occurring in in-contact dogs and the first proven case of CLG in dogs in New Zealand.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Mycobacterial granulomas of the skin and subcutis can be caused by one of a number of pathogens. This review concentrates on noncultivable species that cause diseases characterized by focal granuloma(s), namely leproid granuloma (in dogs) and feline leprosy (in cats). Clinically indistinguishable lesions can be caused by tuberculous organisms (Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium microti) and members of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Rapidly growing mycobacterial species that cause infection of the subcutaneous panniculus associated with draining tracts are not discussed. Disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is an important emerging differential diagnosis for ulcerated cutaneous nodules in certain localized regions. CLINICAL LESIONS: Lesions comprise one or multiple nodules in the skin/subcutis. These are generally firm and well circumscribed, and typically become denuded of hair. They may or may not ulcerate, depending on the virulence of the causal organisms and the immune response of the host. Diagnosis: The most inexpensive, noninvasive means of diagnosis is by submission of methanol-fixed, Romanowsky-stained smears to a Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory after detecting negatively stained or acid-fast bacilli on cytological smears. Scrapings of material from slides usually provide sufficient mycobacterial DNA to enable identification of the causal organism using sequence analysis of amplicons after PCR using specific mycobacterial primers. Therapy: Therapy relies upon a combination of marginal resection of easily accessible lesions and treatment using two or three drugs effective against slowly growing mycobacteria, choosing amongst rifampicin, clarithromycin, clofazimine and pradofloxacin/moxifloxacin.
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